DeepResource

Observing the world of renewable energy and sustainable living

Archive for the month “August, 2017”

2050 – An Energetic Odyssee

Fascinating English-spoken video of Dutch origin [*], with graphics illustrating the energy policy of the European Union for 2050 (of which Britain will no longer be a part after Brexit). Core of solving the energy and climate problems are 25,000 10 MW offshore turbines that will provide the countries bordering the North Sea with 90% of its electricity needs and leaving ample additional capacity potential to provide the rest of Europe with energy as well, in the form of electricity or hydrogen.

[deingenieur.nl] – 25.000 Windturbines in Noordzee
[iabr.nl] – 2050 – Een Energieke Ontdekkingsreis

[*] – A production of IABR in cooperation with Ministerie van Economische Zaken, Van Oord, Shell, TenneT, Zeeland Seaports, European Climate Foundation, RWE, Natuur & Milieu, Havenbedrijf Rotterdam and Havenbedrijf Amsterdam e.o.

BBC – The World in 2050

The World In 2050 [The Real Future Of Earth] – Full BBC Documentary 2017

Lowering Maintenance Cost – Energy Islands in the North Sea

On March 23, 2017 an agreement was signed for the development of an artificial energy island in the middle of the North Sea intended to ease maintenance effort to keep potentially tens of thousands of offshore wind turbines running and to distribute power to neighboring countries.


Energy Island to be built in the Dutch part of the Doggersbank. Because of Brexit, Britain is an unlikely candidate to host this island and in case of a hard-Brexit will go it alone anyway.

[independent.co.uk] – North Sea island: Danish, Dutch and German firms launch bid
[tennet.eu] – European Operators to develop North Sea Wind Power Hub
[arstechnica.com] – North Sea: A giant wind farm to power all of north Europe
[deingenieur.nl] – Gigantisch Stopcontact op Eiland Doggersbank

“Don’t Worry About Intermittency Under 30-40% Renewable Energy Share”


Paul Graham, Chief economist, CSIRO energy, studied the Australian electricity grid

The Australian government’s chief scientific body says there is no apparent technical impediment to reaching 100 per cent renewables for the national electricity grid, and levels of up to 30 per cent renewable energy should be considered as just “trivial” in current energy systems… Graham said the challenges could start to emerge when the penetration of wind and solar move above 40 per cent –as it has in South Australia, which explains why it is focusing on storage and is finally getting traction on its call for changes to energy market rules.

“When we do modelling where we increase the renewable penetration above around 40 per cent of the energy delivered (where South Australia is now) that starts to force out some of that existing dispatchable generation, and then we find that you need to add other technologies to support renewables,’ Graham said.

[reneweconomy.com.au] – CSIRO says Australia can get to 100 per cent renewable energy
[people.csiro.au] – Paul Graham, CSIRO
[wikipedia.org] – CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)
[theconversation.com] – Paul Graham, Australians can have zero-emission electricity, without blowing the bill
[reneweconomy.com.au] – Baseload power is a myth: even intermittent renewables will work

World’s First Offshore Windfarm Vindeby Decommissioned

Reason decommissioning: end of economic life
Installation date: 1991
Decommissioning date: March 2017
Turbines: 11 of 450 kW
Water depth: 4 m
Capacity factor: 22.1%
Installation cost: 10 million euro
Cumulative lifetime power: 243 GWh
Danish electricity price consumers: 30 cent/kWh
Turnover consumer price: 79 million euro

The capacity factor was extremely low. More recent Danish offshore wind farm typically have an average capacity factor of 41.5%

[wikipedia.org] – Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm
[Google Maps] – Vindeby, Denmark
[energynumbers.info] – Capacity factors at Danish offshore wind farms
[deepresource] – Nuon Dismantles Offshore Wind Farm in the Netherlands

Methanol Fuel Cell

Most people associate fuel cells with hydrogen. But there are several hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cells as well, including diesel, methanol and chemical hydrides.

[wikipedia.org] – Fuel cell
[wikipedia.org] – Direct methanol fuel cell
[deepresource] – The Methanol Economy With George Olah

Read more…

Future of E-Vehicles: Battery or Fuel Cell?

The world’s elites seem to agree that e-vehicles are the future. The remaining question is: what will power them? Batteries or fuel cells. Or put differently: will hydrogen be included in the energy conversion scheme? Trillions of euros/dollars are at stake here.

The video claims that batteries have won. It is however possible to find support for either point of view, see links below.

Comment: our tentative conclusion would be that fuel cells will win because of the storage aspect of hydrogen. After all, the renewable generated electricity will need to be stored somewhere anyway. Why not in hydrogen that can be directly used in cars?

[energy.gov] – Fuel Cell and Battery Electric Vehicles Compared
[spectrum.ieee.org] – Why the Automotive Future Will Be Dominated by Fuel Cells
[electrek.co] – Majority of automotive execs still believe battery-powered cars will fail and fuel cells are the future
[energypost.eu] – Why hydrogen fuel cell cars are not competitive — from a hydrogen fuel cell expert

Read more…

Fuel Cells in Shipping

German language video

Global shipping is a major polluter. Efforts are underway to eliminate the use of oil fuel. A replacement candidate is hydrogen-based fuel cells. Hydrogen produced with renewable electricity is converted into electricity, that drives and elektro-motor and propeller.

[e4ships.de] – e4ships – fuel cells in marine applications
[ideenwerkbw.de] – Brennstoffzelle und Schiffe: Sauber auf See

HY4 – World’s First Fuel Cell Hydrogen Plane

On September 29, 2016, the first plane with a fuel cell propulsion took off from Stuttgart airport in Germany.

Empty mass: 630 kg (battery 130 kg, fuel cell 100 kg)
Max. total weight: 1500 kg
Max. speed: 200 kmh
Cruise speed: 145 kmh
Range: 750-1500 km (depending on battery)
Capacity: 4 passengers

[wikipedia.org] – HY4
[hy4.org] – Official site
[golem.de] – Das Brennstoffzellenflugzeug wird viersitzig

[wikipedia.org] – Hydrogen-powered aircraft

Read more…

Hydrogen Europe

From the official site:

Hydrogen Europe (formerly known as NEW-IG) is the leading European industry association representing over 100 companies and national associations in the fuel cells and hydrogen sector.

Following the renewal of the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking under Horizon 2020 (budget 1.3 billion EUR), the association decided to step up its ambition in advocacy towards EU policy-makers beyond this partnership and thereby transform Hydrogen Europe into a full-fledged European industry body with full external reach.

In so achieving, Hydrogen Europe is building a second pillar within the association comprising European National and Regional fuel cell and hydrogen associations. The underlining objective is to bring together fuel cell and hydrogen industry and national/regional associations in order to streamline and enhance advocacy efforts and ultimately strengthen the European fuel cell and hydrogen sector as a whole.

[hydrogeneurope.eu] – Official site
[wikipedia.org] – Jorgo Chatzimarkakis

Interreg – North Sea Region – HyTrEc2

HyTrEc 2

The key aim of HyTrEc 2 is to create conditions so that a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles market can develop, and promote the NSR as a Centre for Excellence for fuel cells and range extenders. The project will reduce the cost of hydrogen vehicles and reduce CO2 emissions by:

  • Improving the operational efficiency of a wide range of vehicles such as vans, large trucks and refuse collection vehicles.
  • Improving the supply chain and training so that the NSR becomes a Centre of Excellence for hydrogen transport and a competitive environment is formed
  • Developing innovative methods for the production, storage and distribution of green hydrogen.
  • Ensuring that the NSR is the dominant region in the EU in terms of hydrogen transport. The project will complement national

Partners

  • European Institute for Innovation Technology e.V.
  • Aberdeen city council
  • Centre of Excellence for Low Carbon and Fuel Technologies
  • Hogskolen i Narvik
  • SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut
  • Provincie Drenthe
  • Gemeente Groningen
  • Aberdeenshire Council

[northsearegion.eu] – HyTrEc2, green transport and mobility
[eifi.info] – HYTREC 2

Read more…

Hyundai FE Fuel Cell Concept

Geneva car show presentation of the 2018 Hyundai fuel cell SUV. Range 800 km (500 km probably more realistic). Efficiency fourth generation fuel cell 60%, 9% better than the previous generation. Worldwide distribution as of 2018. 120 kW electromotor. Low temperature starting problems should have been solved.

[autobahn.eu] – Dit is Hyundai’s next-gen waterstof-SUV, met 800 km bereik

Van Hool Hydrogen Buses

[vanhool.be] – Hybrid fuel cell bus
[wikipedia.org] – Van Hool

Read more…

Solar-Hydrogen-Future Crash Course

Youtube text: Published July 14, 2014. This 22 minute video gives a detailed account for why—given the urgency of our times—Solar Hydrogen technology offers the most promising global energy strategy for the next 2 decades.

Schiphol Airport to Run on 100% Renewable Energy in 2018

[source] Amsterdam Airport is the home of KLM

It all began with Dutch Rail, but now Schiphol Airport near Amsterdam wil also run entirely on renewable electricity as of 2018. For that purpose the energy producer Eneco for the next 15 years will deliver 200 GWh annually to Schiphol (64m), the third airport in Europe after London (76m) and Paris (66m) in terms of passengers and surpassed Frankfurt (61m) last year. The electricity will be entirely sourced from ‘Hollandse wind’.

The amount of electricity equals the consumption of a town like Delft (100,000) and will mostly be used for cooling and airconditioning. With 64 million passengers annually, each producing 120 Watt (or 150 Watt if the suitcase is very heavy) at a temperature level of 37 Celsius, there is very little need for space heating. Where Dutch Rail invested in 8 windparks all over Europe, Schiphol will be provided with electricity from new Dutch wind parks only.

Comment: this is exactly what you want to see happening, major top notch companies setting the tone in the energy debate. After Dutch Rail, Schiphol is yet another Dutch company that switches to 100% renewable energy for its (on-the-ground) operations. Expect other major companies not wanting to stay behind and provide themselves with a “green image” as well, creating a run on renewable energy.

This creates a new “problem”: there is not enough supply of renewable energy. However this “corporate green pull” will greatly stimulate offshore installation companies to expand their businesses, backed by fat, multi-year contracts with large companies, eager to show the world how green they are.

[schiphol.nl] – Royal Schiphol Group draait vanaf 2018 volledig op Hollandse wind
[parool.nl] – Schiphol stapt volledig over op Nederlandse windenergie
[wikipedia.org] – List of the busiest airports in Europe
[nos.nl] – Schiphol nu derde luchthaven van Europa
[deepresource] – Contracts Signed for 752 MW Offshore Wind of Dutch Coast
[deepresource] – Dutch Rail Runs 100% on Wind Power
[deepresource] – 100+ Companies Committed to Corporate Renewable Energy
[deepresource] – Electric Flying

North Sea Offshore Wind Hubs

Port of Esbjerg in Jutland, Denmark. [deepresource] – Wind Hub Esbjerg

[4coffshore.com] – Ports in NW-Europe with offshore wind facilities

Inventory of North Sea ports that function as hubs in the offshore wind construction boom. Esbjerg in Denmark is no doubt the #1 in scale. Other important hubs in no particular order:

Port of Grenaa, Denmark.

Orange Blue Terminal, Eemshaven in The Netherlands.

BOW-terminal Vlissingen, The Netherlands.

Offshore Wind Port Bremerhaven in Germany.

Cuxhaven, Germany offshore terminal

Rotterdam Princess Alexiahaven, Offshore Wind Center, The Netherlands. Currently under construction and expected to be completed in two years time.

Oostende, Belgium

Wilhelmshaven, Germany

Harwich, England

Ramsgate, England

Green Port Hull, England. Major Siemens investment under construction. All in one: windturbine construction and installation.

Dundee, Scotland offshore wind port under construction.

Great Yarmouth, Peel Ports.

Renewable Intermittency – Continental Scale is the Solution

[source]

Here an interview with Dr Gregor Czisch, a consultant specializing in energy supply at the firm Transnational Renewables Consulting. Dr. Czisch likes to think big. His area of expertise and passion is to design a big picture for renewable energy. On a continental scale no less. The largest hindrance of large scale implementation of renewable energy is its intermittent character: no solar energy at night or during periods of cloudy skies and rain or several days of no wind worth mentioning. The problem is not so much producing large amounts of kWh’s in a renewable fashion, the problem is to make supply meet demand. Although there is still much room for further improvement of wind and solar energy production, in essence we have reached a mature state of technology already. The bottleneck currently is storage.

To make a long story short: according to Dr. Czisch a major contribution to breaking down hurdles standing in the way of a 100% renewable energy future would be to strive for a “super grid” on o continental scale. Both in Europe and America. The greatest obstacle in realizing that aim is of a political nature, not technical.

Dr. Czisch has made mathematical models for both Europe and the United States that show that the larger the integrated area of renewable energy generation is, the lesser intermittency will be a problem.

[germaninnovation.org] – Talking about the Super Grid
[deepresource] – The Enormous Energy Potential of the North Sea
[isesco.org.ma] – Supergrids for Balancing Variable Renewables
[solarwerkstatt.org] – Vollversorgung aus erneuerbaren Energien
[de.wikipedia.org] – Gregor Czisch

Dr. Czisch’s vision for a renewable energy future for Europe.

[amazon.com] – Scenarios for a Future Electricity Supply: CostOptimised Variations on Supplying Europe and its Neighbours with Electricity from Renewable Energies

The World of Autonomous E-Vehicles According to Daimler and Bosch

[source] Click to enlarge

Future vision of autonomous e-vehicle driving presented to you by Daimler-Benz and Bosch. A world where vehicles no longer have steering wheels. The person in “car4you” (probably driverless taxi) is absorbed in working, you can have an automated taxi for 19 euro/day, the bus driver has gone fishing, e-bicycles are fast and or parked in elevator structures. Traffic lights still exist although not strictly necessary. Privately owned parked cars no longer exist, they discretely park themselves, only rental cars are parked in designated areas.

[independent.co.uk] – Driverless cars could be on road by early 2020s after Bosch and Daimler launch joint venture
[deepresource] – “By 2030 You Won’t Own a Car”

Stuttgart main street as it should become: urban farming, driverless, quiet, odorless e-vehicles. Transport of goods along cables. Real large volume traffic under ground.

According to Der Spiegel the car may have been invented in Stuttgart, but meanwhile the city is suffocating in diesel fumes. In the eighties, Sindelfingen near Stuttgart was the richest community in Europe. It also was the home of Mercedes-Benz and both these facts were likely strongly correlated. The Zebra crossings for instance were made of marble. But meanwhile the view is rising that the car economy is in a cul de sac.

Stuttgart, the car hellhole it is now, situated between steep hills, keeping the smog trapped.

[spiegel.de] – Autostadt Stuttgart – Kill your darlings! (paywall)

Diesel ban for Stuttgart, which will only accelerate the energy transition.

Intel in Autonomous Cars

The traditional car companies should take care that newcomers won’t make if off with the loot. After Tesla, Google and Apple we now have Intel trying its luck with autonomous vehicles:

Mobileye, an Intel Company, will start building a fleet of fully autonomous (level 4 SAE) vehicles for testing in the United States, Israel and Europe. The first vehicles will be deployed later this year, and the fleet will eventually scale to more than 100 automobiles.

About the SAE autonomous driving level system:

  • Level 0: No Automation. That’s you dear reader and your shabby 1985 Ford Mustang GT.
  • Level 1: Driver Assistance. Environment info resulting in some level of steering and/or accelerating/decelerating; the driver is still in charge.
  • Level 2: Partial Automation. The system performs the basic tasks, but the driver is supposed to supervise it all.
  • Level 3: Conditional Automation. System in control. Driver can be requested to intervene.
  • Level 4: High Automation. Sometimes the driver can be requested to intervene, but no hazards if the driver doesn’t.
  • Level 5: Full Automation. The driver just has to step in and can take a nap and still expect to be delivered at the final destination.

[intel.com] – Intel … to Build Fleet of 100 L4 Autonomous Test Cars
[autobahn.eu] – De 5 ‘levels’ van autonoom rijden
[mercedes-benz.com] – Autonomous long distance drive
[sae.org] – Automated driving

The autonomous driving car level system (click to enlarge)

Electrolysis of Water

2 H2O(l) → 2 H2(g) + O2(g)

In the world of fossil fuel, the fuel is the storage medium. Coal, gas and oil can can be conveniently stored until they are needed. With solar and wind that option doesn’t exist. There can be a large mismatch between supply and demand that needs to be bridged. One of the storage options is hydrogen that can be won from electrolysis of water on the very moment that renewable electricity is produced.

The idea of using hydrogen as the central storage facility originates from 1970, when the term ‘hydrogen economy’ was minted. The advantages are clear: high energy density per unit of weight and clean burning with only water coming from the exhaust. The disadvantages are explosiveness and extremely low temperatures required to liquefy hydrogen in order to achieve high energy density per unit of volume as well. Hydrogen can be used to burn like gasoline and converted into mechanical energy or transformed chemically in a fuel cell to produce electricity. In both cases hydrogen is combined with oxygen to produce water.

As with any conversion technology, the aim is to minimize energy losses and achieve high efficiency. In this post you will find videos that highlight the electrolysis process.

[wikipedia.org] – Electrolysis of water
[wikipedia.org] – Fuel cell
[wikipedia.org] – Hydrogen economy
[amazon.com] – Jeremy Rifkind, The Hydrogen Economy
[theguardian.com] – What’s the ‘hydrogen economy’?
[siemens.com] – SILYZER 200 (PEM electrolysis system)
[profadvanwijk.com] – The Green Hydrogen Economy in the Northern Netherlands

Read more…

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