DeepResource

Observing the world of renewable energy and sustainable living

Archive for the category “coal”

Global Coal Production 1971-2016

[iea.org] – Coal falls as gas rises: World energy balances in 2016
[twitter.com] – Global coal production fell significantly in 2016

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Climate Activists Block Coal Transhipment in Amsterdam Harbor

A group of climate activists named “Code Rood” (“Code Red”) has infiltrated the grounds of the OBA company in Amsterdam to protest the unrestricted use of coal. Amsterdam is the world’s largest petrol and Europe’s second coal harbor. “Code Rood” justified its actions by pointing at a judicial decision of two years ago stating the government is responsible of protecting its citizens against climate change (“Urgenda case”).

According to “Code Rood” nothing has happened since.

The Urgenda Foundation pushes for The Netherlands fossil free as early as 2030, not the EU goal of 2050.

[urgenda.nl] – Urgenda Foundation
[deepresource] – Netherlands Sustainable by 2030
[trouw.nl] – Klimaatactivisten leggen kolenoverslag in Amsterdamse haven stil

[wikipedia.org] – OBA Bulk Terminal Amsterdam
[Google Maps] – OBA Bulk Terminal Amsterdam

“Coal is Dead and Oil is Heading for Peak Demand”

[source]

That’s not us saying so, but the world’s largest investment group BlackRock. These people are not particularly concerned with depleting resources, deteriorating environment or climate change, but in hard money only.

BlackRock, the world’s largest investment group, with $5 trillion in assets — more than the world’s largest banks — has begun to bet on clean energy. Why? “The thing that has changed fundamentally the whole picture is that renewables have gotten so cheap,” said [Jim] Barry.

President Trump is betting on reviving America’s coal industry, but BlackRock considers that to be a mistake.

The economic reality is that cheap fracked gas and plummeting prices for clean energy has squeezed both coal production and coal consumption to levels not seen for decades…
Because of the rapidly improving performance and cost of batteries, Barry is “bullish” on electric vehicles. And as a result, he is bearish on oil demand, noting that “there was always this historic view on oil about peak supply but it’s about peak demand being an equal dynamic.”

[thinkprogress.org] – ‘Coal is dead’ and oil faces ‘peak demand,’ says world’s largest investment group
[wikipedia.org] – BlackRock

Plundering Appalachia

UK Government Rejects UCG

algy-cluf[source] UK UCG promoter Algy Cluff is not amused

But following an independent review, which concluded the emissions from the process would be significantly higher than other sources of gas, the UK Government on Thursday ended any remaining hopes, saying it was “minded to not support the development of this technology in the UK”.

Editor: apparently the UK government is confident that their energy needs can be covered from other sources and shy away from potential negative environmental effects. But the coal will remain where it is and other UK governments could change their minds.

[gov.uk] – Underground Coal Gasification – Evidence Statement of Global Warming Potential
[sciencedirect.com] – The analysis of the underground coal gasification in experimental equipment
[telegraph.co.uk] – Government kills off plans to burn coal under the seabed
[fraw.org.uk] – The hell-fires of UCG threaten Tyneside and the North Sea
[scottishconservatives.com] – Now SNP bans underground coal gasification
[foei.org] – Fuelling the fire
[corporatewatch.org] – Underground Coal Gasification scrapped in the UK

Underground Coal Gasification

When we started this blog in 2012, we were convinced that the very near future would be as predicted by ASPO-2000, Colin Campbell and Richard Heinberg, namely that the world was already at or even passed peak oil and a rapid decrease in available oil would shake the foundations of industrial society.

Meanwhile we’re living in 2017 and nothing of the sort has materialized. Oil price is currently at $54 and the concept of peak oil has gone out of fashion. The direct reason for this (for laymen) unexpected development is the rise of the fracking industry. There is however reason to assume that there is far more fossil fuel in the earth’s crust than previously anticipated:

[deepresource] – Fracking is for Amateurs (Apr 2015)

When US president elect Trump claims that there is for centuries worth of coal reserves, he is probably not exaggerating. The North Sea between Britain and Holland is probably one of the, if not the most explored areas in the world. While hunting for oil, explorers studying the core samples resulting from drilling activities, they noticed the presence of vast quantities of coal. Think trillions of tons of coal, a multiple of what humanity has burned so far in its entire history. Obviously it is not possible to mine these reserves in the conventional way, but meanwhile technology has advanced to the tune that it is no longer necessary to operate in this way.

In short: it is possible to drill holes and burn the coal at the location where it resides, by injecting oxygen and water and retrieving CH4, H2, CO and CO2.

[wikipedia.org] – Underground coal gasification

The conclusion is that there is more than enough fossil fuel around to build the renewable energy base.

There is some Soviet experience with UCG, beginning in the thirties.

[lincenergy.com]
Yerostigaz, located in Angren, Uzbekistan, is the only commercial UCG operation in the world. Operational since 1961, Yerostigaz produces UCG synthesis gas to be used for power generation… 1 million m3/day and will continue to do so for the next 50 years.

[scielo.org.co] – Technological Innovations on Underground Coal Gasification and CO2 SEQUESTRATION 
The advantages of this technique are related to its high efficiency, because it makes possible to triple or quadrupling the exploitable coal reserves and so offsetting the decline in reserves of other mineral fuels such as oil and gas. This is particularly suitable for low quality coals, such as lignite and bituminous coal, which produce less heat in combustion due to its high ash content and are they more polluting in conventional plants.

[ualberta.ca] – The Push to Coal Gasification in Alberta
This paper will look specifically at coal gasification as this has the largest impact on Canada and Alberta, specifically in developing a higher value and more environmentally acceptable usage of coal when compared to straight combustion. Modern coal gasification also introduces a cost-effective substitute to natural gas in the form of syngas and hydrogen that can replace natural gas usage for larger natural gas users (such as the oil sands) allowing the natural gas to be freed up for other commercial markets. Finally, the hydro-gasification process produces a relatively pure and easily captured CO2 stream that normal coal combustion does not allow (or is highly uneconomical). In Alberta this carbon dioxide stream is an additional product line for the coal gasifier, who can sell the product to the oil industry for enhanced oil recovery.

[cornerstonemag.net] – Underground Coal Gasification: An Overview of an Emerging Coal Conversion Technology

[lincenergy.com] – carousel with pictures from the thirties

Read more…

Goldman-Sachs: Global Peak Coal Was 2013

goldman_sachs-etf

Wow, that doesn’t happen too often: we’re being out-doomed by none other than Goldman-Sachs. The always sympathetic bankers guild has issued a statement saying that not everything is kosher in energy land and that the world is already past peak coal.

We’re shocked. According to our ‘moderate doomer’ wisdom, peak oil is about now, peak natural gas perhaps in 2025 and peak coal somewhere after 2030.

No such luck.

[snl.com] – Goldman makes case for ‘peak coal’
[deepresource] – Richard Heinberg, Blackout

P.S. we are not 100% convinced this is true, not even close. Technology is a major wild card, making predictions unreliable.

[deepresource] – Fracking is for Amateurs

Potential For Large Decrease CO2 Emission in Germany

braunkohl[source] Braunkohlekraftwerk Niederaußem des Energieversorgers RWE. dpa

Energy consultant Energy Brainpool has conducted a study, paid by Greenpeace, showing that it is possible to immediately switch off no less than 36 lignite fueled power stations (15 GW) with hardly any consequences at all, other than saving 70 million ton CO2/year. Cleaner electricity could be bought elsewhere in Europe and electricity prices would merely increase with 0.6 cent/kWh (24 euro/household/year). The study does recommend to keep a number of these power stations in a ‘strategic reserve’, so they can be switched on again in case of a supply bottleneck.

[spiegel.de] – 36 Kohlemeiler könnten auf einen Schlag vom Netz

[source] Braunkohlekraftwerk Niederaußem near Cologne

Fracking is for Amateurs

coal_gassification

Rough estimates of the potential of fracking, as practiced in North-America, are that it can postpone the end of the oil age with perhaps a decade or so.

However, there never has been any doubt that the remaining quantity of fossil fuel, stored in the earth’s crust, is many times larger than the cumulative amount of fossil fuel consumed so far in the entire history. The problem has always been: can we access that fuel in an economic way and the concept of EROEI is the leading indicator to decide if a fuel can be exploited economically. The decisive factor is technology, a very dynamic factor. There are for instance enormous quantities of frozen methane lying around on the ocean floor and now it is beginning to dawn that unbelievable large quantities of coal are waiting to be exploited beneath the North-Sea floor, that could be harvested in gas form:

Scientists have discovered vast deposits of coal lying under the North Sea, which could provide enough energy to power Britain for centuries.
Experts believe there is between 3 and 23 trillion tonnes of coal buried in the seabed starting from the northeast coast and stretching far out under the sea.
Data from seismic tests and boreholes shows that the seabed holds up to 20 layers of coal – much of which could be reached with the technology already used to extract oil and gas.

In comparison: so far the world extracted ‘merely’ 0.135 trillion ton of oil, a small fraction of the coal reserves located beneath the North-Sea. In other words: peak conventional oil may have happened in 2005, but in hindsight it was a completely irrelevant event.

If it is wise to exploit these vast reserves is a different matter altogether. But one thing is certain: the original idea we had when we started this blog over three years ago, namely that fossil fuel could become scarce on relatively short notice, that idea needs to be abandoned. Limiting factors will more likely be: finance, geopolitics, war, environment, climate change; not lack of combustible material. It is likely that there is far more fossil fuel around than the atmosphere can ever handle.

Obviously we do not advocate the grand-scale exploitation of coal underneath the North-Sea, although it is nice to know that we in Europe are perhaps not as dependent on the Middle-East for the duration of the transition. What we do advocate is the exploitation of a limited amount to enable the renewable energy transition to occur, meaning a large wind-turbine next to every village and solar panels on every available roof, combined with large scale hydro-storage in mountain areas. The EU should stick to its original goal of 100% renewable energy by 2050. Again: there is no serious energy problem in the long term. There is an awareness problem.

[dailymail.co.uk] – Vast deposits totalling up to 23 trillion tonnes found under the North Sea
[wikipedia.org] – Coal gasification
[theecologist.org] – ‘Underground coal gasification’ hell-fires threaten Tyneside and the North Sea
[thegwpf.com] – Coal is the new black gold under the North Sea
[resilience.org] – 3000 Billion tons of coals off Norway’s coastline
[thejournal.co.uk] – Drilling date set for North Sea’s vast coal reserves
[walesonline.co.uk] – An estimated trillion tonnes of coal found off Wales’ coast
[heraldscotland.com] – North Sea is the place to be in crude price slump declares entrepreneur

gasification_world_624map[source] – North Sea is the place to be in crude price slump declares entrepreneur

Read more…

Germany Lowers Ambition Level Fighting Climate Change

lausitz-braunkohl[source]

German economics minister Sigmar Gabriel has announced that Germany won’t meet the climate goals set earlier. Reason is that it is not possible to shut off both nuclear AND coal based power stations. The original ambition of lowering CO2 with 40% compared to 1990 needs to be abolished.

[spiegel.de]

Unconventional Carbon Fuel From Australia

Australian coal seam gas mining documentary.

[wikipedia]

Read more…

Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

Fischer Tropsch synthesis is crucial in producing fuels, plastics and chemicals from gas, coal or biomass.

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Wind-Coal Break-even in India

[source]
The cost of wind power has dropped below the price of coal-fired energy in parts of India (like Karnataka, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh) for the first time as improved turbine technology and rising fossil-fuel prices boost its competitiveness, Greenko Group Plc said. The current cost to build wind farms in India is about $1.25 million a megawatt.

[renewableenergyworld.com]

Blackout

Review of Richard Heinber’s “Blackout: Coal, Climate and the Last Energy Crisis”.

[amazon.com]

Read more…

The Return of Coal


Oil, natural gas, and alternatives dominate the headlines when it comes to energy. But there’s a big and largely-overlooked revolution occurring with the energy source likely to become the most preferred fuel for a world in economic decline: coal.

[peakprosperity.com]

Global Energy Data 1965-2011


Read more…

The Worlds Largest Oil, Gas & Coal Producers

[source]
Timeseries of oil, gas and coal production data up and including 2011 (oil) and 2010 (gas & coal).

Read more…

Production and Consumption Data


This post is going to be used to collect sources of production and consumption data of primary energy sources. This blogpost will be updated regularly and later probably given a link in the sidebar.

  • Rembrandt Koppelaar on World Energy Consumption 1830-2010, see graph above.
  • The US Energy Information Administration (EIA) recently released full-year 2007-2011 world oil production data per country.
  • [indexmundi.com] – “Home of the Internet’s most complete country profiles. This site contains detailed country statistics, charts, and maps compiled from multiple sources.
  • Gail Tverberg’s blog. Analysis of 2011 EIA oil supply data. Data about top 5 crude oil producers in 2011 (Russia, Saudi-Arabia, USA, China, Iran):
    [ourfiniteworld.com]

  • [enipedia.tudelft.nl] GasOverview
  • [enipedia.tudelft.nl] The world’s power plants
  • [enipedia.tudelft.nl] Electricity production per country from nuclear
  • [enipedia.tudelft.nl] Dutch power generation
  • Rembrandt Koppelaar on World Energy Consumption 1830-2010

    Today’s post goes into the global consumption of energy and provides a dataset in Excel for researchers on global primary energy consumption from 1830 to 2010. In other words, the energy contained in fossil fuels, uranium, and biomass in their raw form before processing into electricity, heat, or liquid fuel, and direct electricity production from hydro, solar, wind, and geothermal. Read more…

    Realtime Data


    This post is going to be used to collect sources of real-time online data of interest to this blog. This blogpost will be updated regularly.

    Finance
    Goldprice in euro
    Exchange rates (dollar-euro default)

    Energy
    Real-time oilprices
    eex (European Energy Exchange, trading in electric energy, natural gas, CO2 emission allowances and coal)
    Prices for Dutch electricity

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