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Archive for the category “China”

China’s Renewable Energy Ambitions

[source] Note that with given population numbers, current per capita energy use (USA 6800, EU 3200, China 2200 kg of oil equivalent, source World Bank), the impact of the Trump administration, as well as Chinese growth ambitions, Europe is destined to achieve a fossil fuel-free economy first.

The world’s biggest energy consumer is aiming for renewables to account for at least 35 per cent of electricity consumption by 2030, according to a revised draft plan from the National Development & Reform Commission seen by Bloomberg.

Chinese energy experts estimate that by 2050 the share of electricity from coal will decline to 30%-50%, and that the remaining 50%-70% will come from a combination of oil, natural gas, and renewable energy sources, including hydropower, nuclear power, biomass, solar energy, wind energy, and other renewable energy sources (Wikipedia).

China’s National Development & Reform Commission (NDRC) has written a draft policy that would increase the renewable energy target from 20% to 35% by 2030. (Cleantechnica)

[forbes.com] – China Is Set To Become The World’s Renewable Energy Superpower
[scmp.com] – China’s revised renewable target of 35% by 2030
[cleantechnica.com] – China Wants 75% Increase 2030 Renewable Energy Target
[wikipedia.org] – Renewable energy in China

Developments in Offshore Wind Jack-Up Market

New offshore wind installation mega-vessel “Voltaire”, able to lift 3,000 ton, ordered by Jan de Nul, Belgium, scheduled to become operational in 2022.

According to Bloomberg there are merely a dozen ships in the world that can install a large offshore wind turbine, which is understandable with a list price of ca. 300 million euro per ship. Currently almost all these vessels are operating in European waters. Europe is uniquely blessed with ca. 600,000 km2 shallow water with high wind speeds (North Sea, Baltic and Irish Sea, together an area larger than France) that can be utilized for offshore wind, in principle enough to supply the entire EU (300 GW on average), three-five times over.

[deepresource] – The Giants of a New Energy Age
[deepresource] – European Wind Energy Potential
[deepresource] – The Enormous Energy Potential of the North Sea
[deepresource] – Unleashing Europe’s Offshore Wind Potential 2030

Principle offshore wind installation vessel illustrated. About one turbine foundation can be realized per day or 4 per week, if fetching a new batch in port is included. The next generation is 10 MW, 13 MW is in the pipeline. Take the Netherlands: 13 GW average electricity consumption. That could be covered by 1,000 wind turbines, or 2,000 rather, if a conservative capacity factor of 50% for large turbines is taken into account. That’s 500 weeks or 10 years installation time. So, a single ship can realize the electricity transition of a country like Holland in a decade. For 100% renewable primary energy we need to calculate twice the amount of electricity consumed today, that’s only two decades! Productivity could be significantly enhanced if a simple cheap barge and tugboat is used to fetch a new batch of 4-6 monopiles from the harbor in Rotterdam, Vlissingen or Eemshaven, while the expensive installation vessel Aeolus merrily hammers away full-time. In that case 4,000 13 MW turbines could be installed in 4,000 days or 11 years. Note that in the mean time a lot of additional solar and onshore wind capacity has been, c.q. will be built. In conclusion: this single ship Aeolus is able to complete the energy transition of the Netherlands, the #17 in the global GDP ranking before 2030, not 2050 as the EU demands. Most likely developing sufficient storage capacity will be the real bottleneck, not electricity generation capacity.

1600 GW waiting to be raked in. EU average power consumption 300 GW. The old continent has no conventional fossil fuel reserves worth mentioning, fortunately Europe doesn’t need to. Armed with the Paris Climate Accords, Europe effectively dissed everybody else his fossil fuel reserves and is offering a viable alternative instead.

Some recent developments in the fields of offshore jack-up vessels:

[bloomberg.com] – Offshore Wind Will Need Bigger Boats. Much Bigger Boats
[auxnavaliaplus.org] – Vessels and platforms for the emerging wind market (pdf, 108p)
[deme-group.com] – DEME’s giant installation vessel ‘Orion’ launched in China
[a2sea.com] – A2SEA Invests in a New Jack-up Vessel
[4coffshore.com] – Construction Progressing for Next Gen Vessel
[cemreshipyard.com] – Offshore Vessels Demand for Offshore Wind Activities
[windenergie-magazine.nl] – Jan de Nul orders new installation vessel
[jandenul.com] – Getting ready for the next generation of offshore wind projects
[offshorewind.biz] – Jan De Nul Orders Mega Jack-Up
[industryreports24.com] – Massive hike by Wind Turbine Installation Vessel Market
[renews.biz] – Japan joins offshore wind jack-up brigade
[maritime-executive.com] – Wind Tower Service Firm Plans to Build Jones Act Ships
[iro.nl] – New design jack-up vessels to strengthen Ulstein’s offshore wind ambitions
[newenergyupdate.com] – Flurry US offshore vessel deals prepares market for huge turbines

Water Electrolysis Catalyst Technology State-of-the-Art

[source]
Abstract:

Production of hydrogen by water splitting is an appealing solution for sustainable energy storage.Development of bifunctional catalysts that are active for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) andthe oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a key factor in enhancing electrochemical water splitting activityand simplifying the overall system design. Here, recent developments in HER–OER bifunctional catalystsare reviewed. Several main types of bifunctional water splitting catalysts such as cobalt-, nickel- andiron-based materials are discussed in detail. Particular attention is paid to their synthesis, bifunctionalcatalytic activity and stability, and strategies for activity enhancement. The current challenges faced arealso concluded and future perspectives towards bifunctional water splitting electrocatalysts are proposed

[researchgate.net] – A review on noble-metal-free bifunctional heterogeneous catalysts for overall electrochemical water splitting
[phys.org] – High-efficiency, low-cost catalyst for water electrolysis

World’s Largest Chinese Jackup Vessel With 2000 Ton Crane

Lifting capacity: 2000 ton, sufficient for 10 MW turbines.

[xindemarinenews.com] – World’s largest offshore wind platform delivered in E.China

1600 Ton Offshore Wind Monopiles in China

To be built in a series of 500. Realization 5 months. Principal: SPIC Guangdong Electric Power Co., Ltd. Destined for Chinese record water depth of 37 m and 3.2 GW project power.

[offshorewind.biz] – Record-Breaking Monopiles Roll Out in China

New Chinese e-SUV with Interchangeable Battery

Go to [3:45] to see how this works.

[spiegel.de] – Akku, wechsel’ dich!

China Proposes GEI Global Electricity Grid

[powermag.com] – China Rolls Out Proposal for Worldwide Grid
[medium.com] – Does the path to a low-carbon future run through a global grid?

Battery Storage Cost < $50/kWh by 2025

Chinese wind energy and battery company Envision predicts that battery storage cost will drop below $50/kWh by 2025. This would imply e-vehicle battery with a capacity of 40 kWh and range of 500 km for less than $2,000. And less than $100/kWh by 2020.

[cleantechnica.com] – EV Battery Cell Costs Will Fall Below $50/kWh By 2025
[automotivenl.com] – Accuprijs komt binnenkort uit op $100 per kWh
[wikipedia.org] – Envision

Lithium Werks to Build 8 GW Battery Factory in China

Dutch entrepreneur Kees Koolen, the man behind booking.com, is now embarking on bigger projects with his new company Lithium Werks, that is building an 8 GW battery factory in China. The project kickoff was attended by the Chinese and Dutch prime ministers in The Hague. Eventually the factory will have an annual production rate of 500 GWh by 2030. The focus will be on lithium iron phosphate batteries with the size of shipping containers, not on the saturated car batteries market. 10 more factories are planned until 2025, for starters one in Mexico and yet another in China. Annual capacity 1 GW.

Additionally a battery R&D center will be set up in Twenthe, next to an old airstrip. Koolen expects to employ 2000 engineers there by 2025.

[cleantechnica.com] – Lithium Werks Announces 8 GW Battery Gigafactory In China
[reuters.com] – Dutch battery company to build 1.6 billion euro plant in China
[bloomberg.com] – Move Over, Tesla. This Little Dutch Company Makes Big Batteries
[lithiumwerks.com] – Company site
[lithiumwerks.com] – New R&D campus at Technology Base in Twente
[nrc.nl] – In China bouwt Kees Koolen een gigafabriek voor accu’s

Read more…

Baidu Begins Mass Production Self-Driving Bus

[wikipedia.org] – Baidu

The State of Solar

[worldatlas.com] – Countries That Use The Most Solar Power
[energy-charts.de] – Electricity-production in Germany

XEV LSEV, 3D-printed E-Vehicle for $7.5k

Range 150 km, weight 450 kg, max speed 72 kmh.

[cleantechnica.com] – Finally, Your Next Car Could Be A 3D-Printed Electric Car — Only $7,500 & Can Be Built In 3 Days

Solar Road in China

[cleantechnica.com] – China Opens 1-Kilometer Long Solar Road

HydrogenPro AS

800 Nm3/hr hydrogen flow costs $2M. Investment cost alkaline equipment is 50% of the cost for PEM. Operating cost: alkaline 20% more efficient than PEM (mainly energy cost).

[hydrogen-pro.com] – Company site

What does Nm3/hr mean? Normal Meter Cubed per Hour. Unit used to measure gas flow rate. The ‘Normal’ refers to normal conditions of 0degC and 1 atm (standard atmosphere = 101.325 kPa) – for practical purposes this is rounded to 1 bar.

Three Gorges Dam

[wikipedia.org] – Three Gorges Dam
[internationalrivers.org] – Three Gorges Dam
[scientificamerican.com] – China’s Three Gorges Dam: An Environmental Catastrophe?

Efficiency Breakthrough Lithium-Ion Batteries?

Dendrites are the enemy of Lithium-Ion batteries

Lithium-Ion batteries could be far more efficient, were it not that they need to be “sabotaged” on purpose, by “diluting” the cathode with graphene in order to prevent the growth of stalactite-like structures called dendrites on the cathode surface, see picture. Dendrites eventually cause the battery to fail, so this outgrowth needs to be prevented with comes at the cost of storage capacity up to a factor of 10.

Researchers at Drexel University, Tsinghua University in Beijing and Hauzhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan, China have developed an approach to eliminate the need for graphene by working with nanosized diamonds added to the electrolyte inside the battery. This suppresses dendrite growth at least during the first 100 charge-discharge cycles.

Commercial applications are probably several years away.

[nature.com] – Nanodiamonds suppress the growth of lithium
dendrites
[drexel.edu] – Recipe for Safer Batteries — Just Add Diamonds
[cleantechnica.com] – Potential Lithium-Ion Battery Breakthrough
[newscenter.lbl.gov] – Roots of the Lithium Battery Problem… Dendrites
[phys.org] – Technique to suppress dendrite growth in lithium metal batteries
[electronicproducts.com] – ..dendrites… why do they cause fires in lithium batteries?

Read more…

Ocean Wave Energy in China

Yee Ter Energy Group had researched and developed Ocean Wave Energy for 10 years. This video was created in year 2015 at Qingdao Bay, China. The power plant was being tested as in the video and it successfully generated electric power. This Ocean Wave Energy has Patent Certificate in USA, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand, Germany and Australia. The power plant used the continued ocean waves as the source to generate electricity through its turbine and power generator. It does not require any raw material. It does not produce any pollution. It does not have negative impact to citizen, environment and does not cause global warming.

[wikipedia.org] – Wave power

China to Install 403 GW New Wind Capacity in a Decade

[source] Top 10 distribution of global installed wind power

Currently China has installed 169 GW of wind power, all onshore. According to the renewable energy analysts MAKE Consulting China will add 403 GW new wind capacity between 2020-2030. Note that the total average EU electricity production from all sources is 360 GW alone, although it needs to be remarked that real wind power is ca. 25% of name plate power.

Nevertheless, China, the giant that is awakening.

[consultmake.com] – MAKE Consulting
[cleantechnica.com] – China To Install 403 Gigawatts Of Wind Energy Over Next Decade

China Threatens Philippines With War Over South China Sea

[source] The near future, “People’s Liberation Army” storming the beaches of the Philippines?

China’s president warned the Philippines that it would go to war if Manila insisted on enforcing an international arbitration decision rejecting China’s claims over disputed areas of the South China Sea, the Philippine president said in a televised speech on Friday, May 19.

Xi’s threat was unmistakable. This was Xi’s message: “We’re friends as long as you accept the fact that the South China Sea is ours, all of it including the portion you call the West Philippine Sea. As long as you accept this, we will provide you with generous loans to fund your infrastructure projects. But if you drill for oil there, we will declare war on you.”

Philippines president Duterte going public and spilling the beans about Chinese threats, possibly in an attempt to seek international (read: American) help, after the UN has declared Chinese claims null and void?

The reason for this sudden aggressive tone could be the successful Chinese effort to begin to continuously mine methane hydrates, 9 days earlier in the South China Sea. Estimates of 150 billion cubic meters of natural gas equivalent, that is 50 years Chinese oil consumption equivalent. An additional advantage would be that China could shift from dirty coal to natural gas, alleviating Chinese cities pollution.

[nytimes.com] – Duterte Says Xi Warned Philippines of War Over South China Sea
[usa.inquirer.net] – Why China will declare war if PH drills for oil

China Claims Breakthrough Methane Hydrates Mining

Chinese authorities claim to have achieved a major breakthrough in mining methane hydrates in the form of ice from the floor of the South China Sea (SCS), that could lead to a global energy revolution. The fuel was discovered in 2007 but for the first time China is able to mine it in a continuous process from a floating rig in the SCS. Depth: 1,200 m. Since production began on May 10, 2017, 120,000 m3 pure gas-hydrate has been extracted. Japan reported similar successes.

The US-DOE estimates that global methane hydrates reserves could be bigger than all other sources of fossil fuel combined. However, mining of methane hydrates is potentially environmentally dangerous, because methane is one of the worst green house gasses.

[source] Chinese crew celebrating success

[mining.com] – China successfully mines flammable ice from the South Sea
[chinausfocus.com] – Methane Hydrates: China’s Real South China Sea Goal?

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