800 Nm3/hr hydrogen flow costs $2M. Investment cost alkaline equipment is 50% of the cost for PEM. Operating cost: alkaline 20% more efficient than PEM (mainly energy cost).
[hydrogen-pro.com] – Company site
What does Nm3/hr mean? Normal Meter Cubed per Hour. Unit used to measure gas flow rate. The ‘Normal’ refers to normal conditions of 0degC and 1 atm (standard atmosphere = 101.325 kPa) – for practical purposes this is rounded to 1 bar.
Lithium-Ion batteries could be far more efficient, were it not that they need to be “sabotaged” on purpose, by “diluting” the cathode with graphene in order to prevent the growth of stalactite-like structures called dendrites on the cathode surface, see picture. Dendrites eventually cause the battery to fail, so this outgrowth needs to be prevented with comes at the cost of storage capacity up to a factor of 10.
Researchers at Drexel University, Tsinghua University in Beijing and Hauzhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan, China have developed an approach to eliminate the need for graphene by working with nanosized diamonds added to the electrolyte inside the battery. This suppresses dendrite growth at least during the first 100 charge-discharge cycles.
Commercial applications are probably several years away.
[nature.com] – Nanodiamonds suppress the growth of lithium
[drexel.edu] – Recipe for Safer Batteries — Just Add Diamonds
[cleantechnica.com] – Potential Lithium-Ion Battery Breakthrough
[newscenter.lbl.gov] – Roots of the Lithium Battery Problem… Dendrites
[phys.org] – Technique to suppress dendrite growth in lithium metal batteries
[electronicproducts.com] – ..dendrites… why do they cause fires in lithium batteries?
Yee Ter Energy Group had researched and developed Ocean Wave Energy for 10 years. This video was created in year 2015 at Qingdao Bay, China. The power plant was being tested as in the video and it successfully generated electric power. This Ocean Wave Energy has Patent Certificate in USA, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand, Germany and Australia. The power plant used the continued ocean waves as the source to generate electricity through its turbine and power generator. It does not require any raw material. It does not produce any pollution. It does not have negative impact to citizen, environment and does not cause global warming.
[wikipedia.org] – Wave power
[source] Top 10 distribution of global installed wind power
Currently China has installed 169 GW of wind power, all onshore. According to the renewable energy analysts MAKE Consulting China will add 403 GW new wind capacity between 2020-2030. Note that the total average EU electricity production from all sources is 360 GW alone, although it needs to be remarked that real wind power is ca. 25% of name plate power.
Nevertheless, China, the giant that is awakening.
[source] The near future, “People’s Liberation Army” storming the beaches of the Philippines?
China’s president warned the Philippines that it would go to war if Manila insisted on enforcing an international arbitration decision rejecting China’s claims over disputed areas of the South China Sea, the Philippine president said in a televised speech on Friday, May 19.
Xi’s threat was unmistakable. This was Xi’s message: “We’re friends as long as you accept the fact that the South China Sea is ours, all of it including the portion you call the West Philippine Sea. As long as you accept this, we will provide you with generous loans to fund your infrastructure projects. But if you drill for oil there, we will declare war on you.”
Philippines president Duterte going public and spilling the beans about Chinese threats, possibly in an attempt to seek international (read: American) help, after the UN has declared Chinese claims null and void?
The reason for this sudden aggressive tone could be the successful Chinese effort to begin to continuously mine methane hydrates, 9 days earlier in the South China Sea. Estimates of 150 billion cubic meters of natural gas equivalent, that is 50 years Chinese oil consumption equivalent. An additional advantage would be that China could shift from dirty coal to natural gas, alleviating Chinese cities pollution.
Chinese authorities claim to have achieved a major breakthrough in mining methane hydrates in the form of ice from the floor of the South China Sea (SCS), that could lead to a global energy revolution. The fuel was discovered in 2007 but for the first time China is able to mine it in a continuous process from a floating rig in the SCS. Depth: 1,200 m. Since production began on May 10, 2017, 120,000 m3 pure gas-hydrate has been extracted. Japan reported similar successes.
The US-DOE estimates that global methane hydrates reserves could be bigger than all other sources of fossil fuel combined. However, mining of methane hydrates is potentially environmentally dangerous, because methane is one of the worst green house gasses.
[source] Chinese crew celebrating success
An artificial lake located near Huainan, Anhui, China, was used to install 40 MW worth of floating solar panels. The lake was a result of abandoned coal mining activities in the past. Advantages floating solar: cooling of the panels, no land use, which is important for overcrowded countries like China.
Published on 8 jan. 2014 – China has embarked on the greatest push for renewable energy the world has ever seen. Turbine construction Reduced prices could make Chinese-made turbines more appealing to buyers abroad.
For the global renewable energy transition to work, hundreds of thousands of steel wind towers, monopiles and nacelle’s need to be built. The good news is, the iron is there and currently relatively cheap.
Weight of a large offshore wind turbine:
Rule of thumb 5 MW offshore wind turbine steel requirements: 300 + 2200 + 400 = 2900 ton
One million 5 MW offshore wind turbines require 2.9 billion ton or 88% annual global steel production.
Total world electricity consumption was 19,504 TWh in 2013. [source]
Annual electricity production 5 MW offshore ind turbine: 15 million kWh or 15 GWh
In other words: with 1.3 million offshore 5 MW wind turbines you have your global 2013 electricity consumption covered, if you ignore for a moment aspects like storage. And this time entirely fossil free, which was the purpose of the operation. But this ‘back-of-an-envelope’ exercise should give you an idea of the scale of the challenge.
Offshore wind turbine monopile production from steel plate.
[source]Sino-Burma pipelines refers to planned oil and natural gas pipelines linking Burma’s deep-water port of Kyaukphyu (Sittwe) in the Bay of Bengal with Kunming in Yunnan province of China. The Myanmar section of the gas pipeline was completed on 12 June 2013 and gas started to flow to China on 21 October 2013. The oil pipeline was completed in Aug, 2014. The oil pipeline will have a capacity of 12 million tonnes of crude oil per year. The gas pipeline will allow delivery of natural gas from Burma’s offshore fields to China with an expected annual capacity of up to 12 bcm of natural gas.
On the 29th of January, China opened, with little fanfare, a new oil link through Myanmar… This 2,400km long pipeline runs through some of the most rugged areas on the planet, marked by jagged hills and ridges and dense jungle… The new route however, has one invaluable advantage in eyes of Chinese leaders: it bypasses the Malacca straits, whose infamous waters are infested with pirates… The pipeline shortens the distance the oil will have to travel by sea to reach China by 700 miles. It also cuts by 30% the time this liquid black gold will take to get to the Middle Kingdom… Avoiding the Malacca detour had the other, even more invaluable advantage in the eyes of the Chinese leadership. With 80% of all imported hydrocarbons to China going through the Malacca sea-route, China is vulnerable to having its overseas energy supplies blockaded by the American 6th Fleet during a Sino-U.S. geopolitical crisis… Another even bigger behemoth project is now in the works, a railway line is being discussed, which will follow the route taken by the pipelines. This project has a price tag of $20 billion dollars and would allow China to more easily import Burma’s precious wood and all sorts of other commodities, while also facilitating the flow of Chinese workers to the coast.
[en.wikipedia.org] – Sino-Myanmar pipelines
[forbes.com] – With Oil And Gas Pipelines, China Takes A Shortcut Through Myanmar
Wisdom from the East? Not really, they are repeating all the mistakes the West made. The entire world wants to copy the West, that isn’t too wise either, but at least understands best that the situation is untenable.
[zerohedge.com] – Carmageddon: This Is What 750 Million Chinese Hitting The Road Looks Like
We don’t believe in the hydrogen economy, much hyped in the past, for the simple reason that hydrogen does not exist in nature and needs to be produced. That production invariably goes hand in hand with conversion losses. So why would you want to use electricity, generated by solar or wind, to produce hydrogen first, to power a tram with it next. It makes more sense to directly pump the electricity in the grid and use it to power the tram in the conventional way.
Hydrogen perhaps has its place as a means to store energy for selected niche applications in a renewable energy economy, but the best way to store energy is in batteries or pumped hydro storage in mountainous areas.
The hydrogen economy won’t fly as things stand now.
[alternative-energy-news] – Hydrogen-powered tram developed in China
[wikipedia.org] – Hydrogen economy
Efficiency electrolysis water:
Current best processes have an efficiency of 50% to 80%
So you already lost 20-50% in the conversion process electricity –> H2.
An Otto cycle internal-combustion engine running on hydrogen is said to have a maximum efficiency of about 38%, 8% higher than a gasoline internal-combustion engine.
Compare that to the efficiency of an electric motor:
BLDC motors are typically 85–90% efficient or more. Efficiency for a BLDC motor of up to 96.5% have been reported, whereas DC motors with brushgear are typically 75–80% efficient.
See? Hydrogen does not make sense at all in the case of trams.
[phys.org] – Why a hydrogen economy doesn’t make sense
In a recent study, fuel cell expert Ulf Bossel explains that a hydrogen economy is a wasteful economy. The large amount of energy required to isolate hydrogen from natural compounds (water, natural gas, biomass), package the light gas by compression or liquefaction, transfer the energy carrier to the user, plus the energy lost when it is converted to useful electricity with fuel cells, leaves around 25% for practical use — an unacceptable value to run an economy in a sustainable future. Only niche applications like submarines and spacecraft might use hydrogen.