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Archive for the category “Denmark”

Developments in Offshore Wind Jack-Up Market

New offshore wind installation mega-vessel “Voltaire”, able to lift 3,000 ton, ordered by Jan de Nul, Belgium, scheduled to become operational in 2022.

According to Bloomberg there are merely a dozen ships in the world that can install a large offshore wind turbine, which is understandable with a list price of ca. 300 million euro per ship. Currently almost all these vessels are operating in European waters. Europe is uniquely blessed with ca. 600,000 km2 shallow water with high wind speeds (North Sea, Baltic and Irish Sea, together an area larger than France) that can be utilized for offshore wind, in principle enough to supply the entire EU (300 GW on average), three-five times over.

[deepresource] – The Giants of a New Energy Age
[deepresource] – European Wind Energy Potential
[deepresource] – The Enormous Energy Potential of the North Sea
[deepresource] – Unleashing Europe’s Offshore Wind Potential 2030

Principle offshore wind installation vessel illustrated. About one turbine foundation can be realized per day or 4 per week, if fetching a new batch in port is included. The next generation is 10 MW, 13 MW is in the pipeline. Take the Netherlands: 13 GW average electricity consumption. That could be covered by 1,000 wind turbines, or 2,000 rather, if a conservative capacity factor of 50% for large turbines is taken into account. That’s 500 weeks or 10 years installation time. So, a single ship can realize the electricity transition of a country like Holland in a decade. For 100% renewable primary energy we need to calculate twice the amount of electricity consumed today, that’s only two decades! Productivity could be significantly enhanced if a simple cheap barge and tugboat is used to fetch a new batch of 4-6 monopiles from the harbor in Rotterdam, Vlissingen or Eemshaven, while the expensive installation vessel Aeolus merrily hammers away full-time. In that case 4,000 13 MW turbines could be installed in 4,000 days or 11 years. Note that in the mean time a lot of additional solar and onshore wind capacity has been, c.q. will be built. In conclusion: this single ship Aeolus is able to complete the energy transition of the Netherlands, the #17 in the global GDP ranking before 2030, not 2050 as the EU demands. Most likely developing sufficient storage capacity will be the real bottleneck, not electricity generation capacity.

1600 GW waiting to be raked in. EU average power consumption 300 GW. The old continent has no conventional fossil fuel reserves worth mentioning, fortunately Europe doesn’t need to. Armed with the Paris Climate Accords, Europe effectively dissed everybody else his fossil fuel reserves and is offering a viable alternative instead.

Some recent developments in the fields of offshore jack-up vessels:

[bloomberg.com] – Offshore Wind Will Need Bigger Boats. Much Bigger Boats
[auxnavaliaplus.org] – Vessels and platforms for the emerging wind market (pdf, 108p)
[deme-group.com] – DEME’s giant installation vessel ‘Orion’ launched in China
[a2sea.com] – A2SEA Invests in a New Jack-up Vessel
[4coffshore.com] – Construction Progressing for Next Gen Vessel
[cemreshipyard.com] – Offshore Vessels Demand for Offshore Wind Activities
[windenergie-magazine.nl] – Jan de Nul orders new installation vessel
[jandenul.com] – Getting ready for the next generation of offshore wind projects
[offshorewind.biz] – Jan De Nul Orders Mega Jack-Up
[industryreports24.com] – Massive hike by Wind Turbine Installation Vessel Market
[renews.biz] – Japan joins offshore wind jack-up brigade
[maritime-executive.com] – Wind Tower Service Firm Plans to Build Jones Act Ships
[iro.nl] – New design jack-up vessels to strengthen Ulstein’s offshore wind ambitions
[newenergyupdate.com] – Flurry US offshore vessel deals prepares market for huge turbines

Germany Missing Out on Power-to-Gas Revolution

[Source]

German magazine der Spiegel despairs at the way with which Germany plays a significant role as a power-to-gas (P2G) innovator, yet fails to make a commercial success out of its endeavors.

One of the largest P2G installations is located in Pritzwalk, in East-Germany. Capacity 360 m3/hour. The installation can be seen as an opposition against an all-electric world. In the Pritzwalk Region 4 times more renewable electricity is produced as is consumed. P2G-installations could absorb this electricity and store it locally, either as H2, NH3 or CH4. In several parts in Germany, renewable wind electricity production is regularly switched off because of overproduction. P2G-installations would fit in wonderfully here.

Germany has a natural gas grid of 500,000 km that could transport renewable H2 or CH4. The trouble is that Germany isn’t pushing hard enough to roll out P2G on a large scale. Other countries do: the Netherlands, Denmark and Japan as prime examples. Official German justification: too low efficiency, 50%. According to der Spiegel installations with 75% do exist and there is room for even better numbers.

[spiegel.de] – Die verschleppte Energierevolution
[deepresource] – The Netherlands is Placing its Bets on the Hydrogen Economy

Energy Storage in Denmark

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When it comes to renewable energy, Denmark is our favorite country. There are other countries with higher penetration of renewable energy, like Norway, Canada and Uruguay, but that doesn’t really count from a viewpoint of the transition, because these countries are blessed with low population densities and lots of hydro-power, old-school renewable energy, so to speak. Good for them but not applicable to all.

One of the prime candidates to become such a country is Denmark, the country from where the wind turbine revolution started in the 1970s. Denmark got rewarded for its farsightedness by now owning the most potent wind energy industry in the world, adding to the already considerable wealth of this Nordic nation.

[wikipedia.org] – Wind power in Denmark

Denmark was a pioneer in developing commercial wind power during the 1970s, and today a substantial share of the wind turbines around the world are produced by Danish manufacturers such as Vestas and Siemens Wind Power along with many component suppliers. Wind power produced the equivalent of 42.1% of Denmark’s total electricity consumption in 2015, increased from 33% in 2013, and 39% in 2014. In 2012 the Danish government adopted a plan to increase the share of electricity production from wind to 50% by 2020, and to 84% in 2035. Denmark had the 6th best energy security in the world in 2014.

It can’t be stressed enough the importance of having at least one showcase of a country where the renewable energy transition has succeeded, in order to silence the numerous detractors of renewable energy, who claim that the transition can’t be done.

[wikipedia.org] – Electricity sector in Denmark
[wikipedia.org] – Solar power in Denmark
[wikipedia.org] – Denmark

Denmark key stats: 5.8 million people, GDP per capita $53k (PPP), $66k (nominal), population density 135/km2, area 43k km2. Electricity consumption 2017: 33k GWh or 5.859 kWh/capita.
Share renewable electricity in 2017: 66%, consisting of 44% wind, 19% biomass and 3% solar.

Here a report about how Denmark thinks to tackle the storage problem, with the explicit aim to allow for much larger penetration of renewable electricity than the 43.4% they had from wind alone in 2017 and that is expected to rise to 50% by 2020. It tackles in a simulation study both electricital and thermal energy storage needs.

[store-project.eu] – Facilitating energy storage to allow high penetration of
intermittent renewable energy (pdf)

Ammonia as the Fuel of the Future

The hydrogen economy may experience a revival, the old problems still exist. Hydrogen is, to put it mildly, not easy to handle. Fortunately there are derivatives from hydrogen as an energy storage medium, that solve some of the hydrogen problems. Ammonia is one of them. A new impetus in that direction comes from the university of Aarhus in Denmark. The progress made entails improved methods of producing N2 and H2 without fossil fuel. Ammonia (NH3) is subsequently produced in the conventional way and is to be burned as a liquid fuel in a fuel cell. Ammonia is to be produced solely with the ingredients electricity, water and air. The projects is concentrating on heavy traffic (ships, trains).

The German company MAN is planning to have an ammonia-fueled marine engine operational by 2022.

Challenges that remain: low flammability and incomplete combustion of ammonia, resulting in undesirable NOx emissions. Ammonia is toxic for humans

[ingenioer.au.dk] – AU researchers develop the carbon-free fuel of the future from air, water and electricity
[eng.au.dk/en] – the “perps”
[cleantechnica.com] – The Potential Of Ammonia As Carbon-Free Fuel — Major New Research Project At The University Of Aarhus
[nh3fuelassociation.org] – Ship Operation Using LPG and Ammonia As Fuel on MAN B&W Dual Fuel ME-LGIP Engines
[ammoniaenergy.org] – MAN Energy Solutions: an ammonia engine for the maritime sector
[man-es.com] – MAN corporate site

[deepresource] – Ammonia (NH3) as Storage Medium for Renewable Energy
[deepresource] – First Climate Neutral Power Station in The Netherlands
[deepresource] – The Netherlands is Placing its Bets on the Hydrogen Economy

Cobra Sub-Sea Cable Project Near Completion

The COBRA sub-sea cable interconnector between Denmark and the Netherlands is nearing completion and operations will begin early 2019. Another leg of the European Supergrid will have been realized.

[cobracable.eu] – Project site
[wikipedia.org] – COBRA cable
[deepresource] – Construction Started COBRA Cable Netherlands-Denmark
[deepresource] – European Supergrid Submarine Cables – Inventory & Plans

Nel H2Station Factory

Norwegian “Nel Hydrogen” company has a hydrogen gas stations factory in Denmark with a capacity of max. 300 stations per year.

[nelhydrogen.com] – Nel Company site

Read more…

Offshore Wind Capacity Factors

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The general rule is: the bigger and the newer the offshore wind turbines, the larger the capacity factor becomes and hence the lower the per kWh price.

[energynumbers.info] – Danish data
[energynumbers.info] – German data
[energynumbers.info] – UK data
[energynumbers.info] – Belgian data

The champion: Dudgeon (last 12 months) ==> *** 65.3% ***

Dudgeon: 67 Siemens 6 MW turbines, 32 km offshore Norfolk, operational since October 2017, owners Statoil, Masdar, Statkraft, water depth 18-25 m, rotor axis 110 m, rotor diameter 154 m, nameplate capacity factor 48%

[4coffshore.com] – Dudgeon UK offshore wind farm 402 MW
[wikipedia.org] – Dudgeon Offshore Wind Farm
[wikipedia.org] – Capacity factor

[ge.com] – Haliade-X Offshore Wind Turbine Platform

The Haliade-X 12 MW also features a 63% capacity factor*—five to seven points above industry standard. Each incremental point in capacity factor represents around $7 million in revenue for our customers over the life of a windfarm.

Building a Hydrogen Refueling Station in 48 Hours (Time-lapse)

Fill the tank of your fuel cell powered car within 3 minutes with hydrogen and drive another 500 km.

The West is betting on batteries.
The Japanese are betting on fuel cells and hydrogen.

We bet on the Japanese and the hydrogen solution as displayed in the video.

Vattenfall Orders 1 GW Wind Park from Siemens-gamesh

The largest offshore wind order of 2017: the three wind farms, Kriegers Flak in the Baltic Sea and Vesterhav Syd and Nord in the North Sea, have a total investment value of close to EUR 1.7 billion (SEK 16.5 billion).

[vattenfall.com] – Vattenfall Places Historically Large Wind Power Order
[4coffshore.com] – Vesterhav Nord/Syd Offshore Wind Farm
[offshorewind.biz] – Vattenfall Inks Danish Offshore Wind Contracts

Segmented Wind Towers

V164 3D Training Simulator

DONG to Build World’s Largest Offshore Wind Park Hornsea-UK

DONG Energy of Denmark has won the bid for building the largest offshore wind park to date (1.4 GW), Hornsea-2 in the British part of the North Sea at a record low price guarantee of £57.50/MWh and is scheduled for completion in 2022. DONG is currently working on Hornsea-1 (1.2 GW), to be completed in 2020.

[wikipedia.org] – Hornsea Wind Farm
[cleantechnica.com] – UK Offshore Wind Now Cheaper Than Gas & Nuclear
[cleantechnica.com] – UK Renewable Energy Competitive Auction Yields Record Price Lows

Gasunie Joining North Sea Wind Power Hub Consortium

Earlier today the Dutch company Gasunie has joined the North Sea Wind Power Hub Consortium. The aim is to build an artificial “energy island” in the middle of the North Sea, where wind power to the tune of 100 GW will come together eventually and distributed to countries neighboring the North Sea. Furthermore the participating partners (Netherlands, Germany and Denmark) are serious about producing hydrogen and store it in empty gas fields under the North Sea.

dogger island map north sea

[nos.nl] – Nederlandse energiereuzen gaan wind- en zonne-energie opslaan
[infrasite.nl] – Gasunie treedt toe tot North Sea Wind Power Hub consortium
[wikipedia.org] – Gasunie
[tennet.eu] – Gasunie treedt toe tot North Sea Wind Power Hub
[renews.biz] – Gasunie backs island vision
[renewablesnow.com] – Gas grid operator joins North Sea wind hub concept
[arstechnica.com] – North Sea Wind Power Hub: A giant wind farm to power all of north Europe
[deepresource] – Important Step Taken Towards Energy Hub North Sea
[deepresource] – Power to gas

Vestas and Tesla to Combine Forces

The world’s largest wind turbine manufacturer Vestas wants to add storage facilities to its wind farms, hence the new relationship with battery manufacturer Tesla. With an ever increasing installed base of wind power, with a supply of electricity that is inherently variable, storage is becoming increasingly important.

Tesla wants to expands its customer base and move beyond car batteries and home powerwalls.

[bloomberg.com] – Vestas Joins With Tesla to Combine Wind Turbines With Batteries
[windpowermonthly.com] – Vestas confirms Tesla joint project

Denmark Selling Its Last Oil Company

Steady growth of wind energy, steady decline of fossil fuel consumption.

In a move that could be interpreted as a clear sign of confidence in its own renewable energy strategy, Denmark’s Maersk sold its oil and gas division A.P. Moller-Maersk A/S to French oil giant Total. Three months earlier the Danish company Dong Energy (Danish Oil and Natural Gas) sold its North Sea oil and gas production to German-based Ineos AG. Dong apparently wants to concentrate on its offshore wind core business.

Currently Denmark produces 40% of its electricity from renewable energy and plans to achieve more than 50% in 2020. Paradoxically Denmark would not be a major player in offshore wind without the experiences gained in offshore oil first. It looks like Shell is going down the same path.

With the current alarming news coming in from the climate change front, the prospects for offshore wind look extremely good, especially in the North Sea, were 90% of the world’s offshore wind activities are centered. Only a sudden real breakthrough in the field of nuclear fusion could ruin the prospects for offshore wind business.

[bloomberg.com] – World’s Biggest Wind Turbine Maker Waves Oil Industry Goodbye

World’s First Offshore Windfarm Vindeby Decommissioned

Reason decommissioning: end of economic life
Installation date: 1991
Decommissioning date: March 2017
Turbines: 11 of 450 kW
Water depth: 4 m
Capacity factor: 22.1%
Installation cost: 10 million euro
Cumulative lifetime power: 243 GWh
Danish electricity price consumers: 30 cent/kWh
Turnover consumer price: 79 million euro

The capacity factor was extremely low. More recent Danish offshore wind farm typically have an average capacity factor of 41.5%

[wikipedia.org] – Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm
[Google Maps] – Vindeby, Denmark
[energynumbers.info] – Capacity factors at Danish offshore wind farms
[deepresource] – Nuon Dismantles Offshore Wind Farm in the Netherlands

MHI-Vestas Launches 9.5 MW Offshore Wind Turbine

Mitsubishi-Vestas has launched its massive V164-9.5 MW offshore wind turbine, built on the V164 platform and capable of powering 8,300 U.K. homes. Motivation: lowering cost offshore wind. The design changes within the V164 turbine platform are minimal. One such turbine is already being tested at Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm, United Kingdom.

Dimensions: 35-metric-ton, 80-meter blades. Hub height of 105 meters and a tip height of 187 meters. Nacelle 390-metric-ton nacelle, 20 meters long, 8 meters wide and 8 meters high.

Last December, the machine broke a world record for production by a single wind turbine when it produced 216 MWh of power in a 24-hour period. With a Danish kWh electricity price of 9 euro cent and 31 euro cent for private consumers, this is the equivalent of €19,440 c.q. €66,960. With current offshore price of 2 million euro per MW, implying 20 million euro for the V164-9.5 MW, this would mean that 300 days of consumer end price turnover would match the purchase price (not to be confused with payback period of course).

[offshorewind.biz] – MHI Vestas Launches 9.5 MW Offshore Wind Turbine
[nawindpower.com] – MHI Vestas Launches V164-9.5 MW Offshore Wind Turbine
[bloomberg.com] – Gigantic Wind Turbines Signal Era of Subsidy-Free Green Power
[Google Maps] – Test location V164-9.5 MW at Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm

Company Profile – ‘Blue Water Shipping’ Esbjerg Denmark

Transport and logistics company situated in Esbjerg, Denmark. Blue Water Shipping (BWS) began in 1972 as a two-man company, today it has 1500 employees and 60 offices world-wide. BWS does transportation of wind turbine parts onshore and offshore, but not the final installation.

[da.wikipedia.org] – Blue Water Shipping
[offshorewind.biz] – Blue Water Shipping

Wind Hub Port of Esbjerg, Denmark

This picture should give you an idea of the immense scale of North Sea wind park operations

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[offshorewind.biz] – Port of Esbjerg
[Google Maps] – Esbjerg
[Google Earth] – Esbjerg

DeepOcean Maersk Connector Offshore Cable

The Maersk Connector is the next generation power cable installation vessel, specifically designed to transport and install large volumes of HVAC and HVDC power cable via its on-board 7000Te split capacity capacity duel concentric carousel. The vessel is available for the offshore interconnector and export cable markets, but can also work to the high standards demanded by the North Sea Oil and Gas Industry.

[deepoceangroup.com] – Maersk Connector
[offshorewind.biz] – DeepOcean Takes Over Maersk Connector

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