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Archive for the category “Norway”

The Battle for Norway – Hitler’s Pre-emptive War

lunde-title

[amazon.com] – Henrik O. Lunde, Hitler’s pre-emptive war, the battle for Norway, 1940 (2009)

Summary

In the beginning of April 1940, Germany and the Allies Great-Britain and France invaded Norway at the same time. Why was it that the outpost Norway became the first war theater between the Allies and Germany? The standard popular Hollywood explanation is that Hitler wanted to grab Norwegian territory as a first step of conquering Europe from the Atlantic to the Ural mountains. Lunde shows that this view is untenable. Hitler wanted Scandinavia to remain neutral in a war that was forced upon him by the British and the French. The Norwegian campaign was an escalation of the war initiated by Churchill. Germany had two major vulnerabilities: dependence on oil from Rumania and iron ore supply from Sweden. The Russians knew it, the British and French knew it. After Britain and France had declared war on Germany on september 3, 1939, after the conflict between Germany and Poland over Danzig had escalated, they were reluctant to act upon the war declaration. Germany never wanted war with Britain and France in the first place and Britain and France had too much respect for the German military to attack Germany directly in an all out war. They remembered all too well what had happened in World War 1, namely a Germany at war with Britain, France and Russia at the same time and nevertheless gradually gaining the upper hand in 1917. It was only the American war entry that brought down Germany in the end. In 1940 Germany had a non-agression pact with Russia and America was not yet in the war. So Churchill came up with the idea of attacking Germany indirectly by attempting to interrupt the supply of Swedish iron ore from Narvik/Norway. If this plan had succeeded, Germany would have lost the war even before it had started. Germany had no options other then intervening in Norway. In this review we only consider the decision taking process that lead to war, as described in the first two chapters of the book. The rest of the book deals with the details of the battles and is not considered here. We are only interested in the big picture and diplomatic maneuvering that lead to the invasion.

  • Chapter one – deals with the events from the Allied perspective
  • Chapter two – deals with the events from the German perspective

Editor: It is important to understand that there is no difference in the way the British and French behaved in Norway and in the Low Countries. Small countries Norway, Holland and Belgium were put under great pressure from the Allies to abandon neutrality and reluctantly cooperate in the Allied war effort against Germany. And in both cases it was Churchill who was the driving force behind all the operations.

The author Henrik Lunde is a Norwegian-American, who spent his career as an officer in the U.S. Army, including multiple combat tours as a highly decorated Airborne Ranger. Later, he served as Director, National and International Security Studies, U.S. Army War College. In other words, Lunde is a westerner, but to his astonishment has to admit that the war in Norway was forced upon Hitler by Churchill, the latter being anxious to finally get the war started and escalated. Lunde understands that the ‘wish to help the Finns against the Soviets’ was merely a pretext for the Allies to invade Norway and cut of iron ore supplies to Germany.

Everything about the official WW2 narrative is a lie, carefully concocted by the Allies in Nuremberg to their own advantage:

The Big Picture
Churchill’s backers (review later)
Poland (review later)
Norway (read below)
The Low Countries
Barbarossa (review later)
Pearl Harbor
Unsorted

WW2 was the premeditated destruction of Europe by the globalist powers USA and USSR in an alliance that originated from 1933.

The USSR is dead.
Anglosphere is still at large, trying to ram every country into their planned global empire, a pipe dream, it won’t happen, as the China + Russia + Caliphate are too strong, resistance in Europe is growing and even a large number of European-Americans are unhappy with the way their society is developing.

Let’s restore centuries of European Greatness and liberate ourselves from those who aim for our (multicultural) destruction, if necessary in a unspoken alliance with post-globalist Russia, China and Islam.

paris-berlin-moscou-transparent

Paris-Berlin-Moscow is the winning formula, plus those North-Americans who want to end the empire and lead a European life.

Now back to Lunde’s book:

Why Norway?

1. The Allied Perspective

In the beginning of April 1940, both Germany and the Allies Great-Britain and France invaded Norway. Why was it that the outpost Norway became a war theatre?

norwegiancampaign
NW-European war theater April 1940

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Norway Overtook Russia as Europe’s Largest Gas Supplier

norway-russia

[rt.com] – Norway outstrips Russia as western Europe’s largest gas supplier

Fracking is for Amateurs

coal_gassification

Rough estimates of the potential of fracking, as practiced in North-America, are that it can postpone the end of the oil age with perhaps a decade or so.

However, there never has been any doubt that the remaining quantity of fossil fuel, stored in the earth’s crust, is many times larger than the cumulative amount of fossil fuel consumed so far in the entire history. The problem has always been: can we access that fuel in an economic way and the concept of EROEI is the leading indicator to decide if a fuel can be exploited economically. The decisive factor is technology, a very dynamic factor. There are for instance enormous quantities of frozen methane lying around on the ocean floor and now it is beginning to dawn that unbelievable large quantities of coal are waiting to be exploited beneath the North-Sea floor, that could be harvested in gas form:

Scientists have discovered vast deposits of coal lying under the North Sea, which could provide enough energy to power Britain for centuries.
Experts believe there is between 3 and 23 trillion tonnes of coal buried in the seabed starting from the northeast coast and stretching far out under the sea.
Data from seismic tests and boreholes shows that the seabed holds up to 20 layers of coal – much of which could be reached with the technology already used to extract oil and gas.

In comparison: so far the world extracted ‘merely’ 0.135 trillion ton of oil, a small fraction of the coal reserves located beneath the North-Sea. In other words: peak conventional oil may have happened in 2005, but in hindsight it was a completely irrelevant event.

If it is wise to exploit these vast reserves is a different matter altogether. But one thing is certain: the original idea we had when we started this blog over three years ago, namely that fossil fuel could become scarce on relatively short notice, that idea needs to be abandoned. Limiting factors will more likely be: finance, geopolitics, war, environment, climate change; not lack of combustible material. It is likely that there is far more fossil fuel around than the atmosphere can ever handle.

Obviously we do not advocate the grand-scale exploitation of coal underneath the North-Sea, although it is nice to know that we in Europe are perhaps not as dependent on the Middle-East for the duration of the transition. What we do advocate is the exploitation of a limited amount to enable the renewable energy transition to occur, meaning a large wind-turbine next to every village and solar panels on every available roof, combined with large scale hydro-storage in mountain areas. The EU should stick to its original goal of 100% renewable energy by 2050. Again: there is no serious energy problem in the long term. There is an awareness problem.

[dailymail.co.uk] – Vast deposits totalling up to 23 trillion tonnes found under the North Sea
[wikipedia.org] – Coal gasification
[theecologist.org] – ‘Underground coal gasification’ hell-fires threaten Tyneside and the North Sea
[thegwpf.com] – Coal is the new black gold under the North Sea
[resilience.org] – 3000 Billion tons of coals off Norway’s coastline
[thejournal.co.uk] – Drilling date set for North Sea’s vast coal reserves
[walesonline.co.uk] – An estimated trillion tonnes of coal found off Wales’ coast
[heraldscotland.com] – North Sea is the place to be in crude price slump declares entrepreneur

gasification_world_624map[source] – North Sea is the place to be in crude price slump declares entrepreneur

Read more…

Green Light For German-Norwegian Interconnector

NordLink_signing_with_Dutch_royal_couple-20150319_92e39932f9

On March 19, a contract for a subsea cable named NordLink was signed, under supervision of the Dutch royal couple, king Willem-Alexander and Queen Maxima:

Contracts were signed today in Hamburg between NordLink partners TenneT, Statnett and KfW plus ABB AB for the construction and installation of the German section of the high voltage direct current transmission cable (HVDC cable) for the NordLink project and for the two converter stations. NordLink, the “green cable”, is the first direct connection between the German and Norwegian electricity markets.

nordlink-norger
NordLink is now being build, another one is planned (NorGer)

[tennet.eu] – Dutch royal couple attends contract signing ‘green cable’

Green Light For British-Norwegian Interconnector

nsn-interconnector

As was the case with earlier cable NorNed, the idea is to use Norway as ‘Europe’s battery pack‘: if there is too much renewable energy generated in the UK, for instance wind energy after 24:00, send it to Norway through the interconnector cable and use the energy to pump up water into mountain basins. When energy is required in Britain, let the water flow back to lower altitudes and generate electricity, that can be send back through the same cable. Overall efficiency still ca. 80%.

Completion date: 2021
Length cable: 730 km
Capacity: 730,000 homes or 1,400 MW (both ways)
Investment: 2 billion euro

[guardian.com] – UK and Norway to build world’s longest undersea energy interconnector

Johan Sverdrup Oil Field

norway-oilfield[source]
Johan Sverdrup oil field:

Owner: Norway
Discovered: 2010
Start production: 2019 (est.)
Total reserves: 1.8 billion barrel
Max production: 650,000 barrel/day (a coffee mug / European = ca. 10 kwh)
Total revenue: $205 billion ($40,000 / Norwegian)

Norway already has a fund of $840 billion ($160,000 / Norwegian). It is unlikely that Norway will join the EU any time soon.

[imarketreports.com] – Statoil Sees $205 Billion Revenue From North Sea Field
[wikipedia.org] – Johan Sverdrup oil field

13Feb_Johan_Sverdrup_A[source]

NorNed

Nordned_cable[source]
There can only be one energy strategy for Europe in a resource depleted future: the European supergrid, a pan-European infrastructure, consisting of renewable energy generation, mainly based on wind and solar and large scale hydro storage to filter out intermittent energy supply from said sources. NorNed was a major step towards that integrated renewable European energy future. After 2020 slowly declining fossil fuel supplies from Russia need to be gradually replaced by this renewable infrastructure, probably combined with severe energy saving measures as well as rationing.

Wikipedia: NorNed is a 580-kilometre (360 mi) long HVDC submarine power cable between Feda in Norway and the seaport of Eemshaven in the Netherlands, which interconnects both countries’ electricity grids. It is the longest submarine power cable in the world.[2] Budgeted at €550 million, and completed at a cost of €600m,[3] the NorNed cable is a bipolar HVDC link with a voltage of ±450 kV and a capacity of 700 MW. NorNed is a joint project of the Norwegian transmission system operator Statnett and its Dutch counterpart TenneT… After two months of operation, the cable generated revenues of approximately € 50 million, meaning that in two months’ time, 8% of the total costs of the cable have been recovered. In the business case drawn up for the NorNed cable, annual revenues were estimated at €64 million. NorNed has been included in European Market Coupling Company operations as of 12 January 2011.

[en.wikipedia.org]

Translated Dutch wikipedia: the cable is a big success; in 2008 (cable in use for merely eight months) 3000 GWh were imported by the Netherlands and 330 GWh were exported. The cable is used to import cheap clean hydro electricity during the day from Norway. During the night cheap Dutch electricity is exported to spare reserves in the Norwegian hydro bassins or even to pump up water into the bassins. In this way the lakes are used to store energy that can be easily be reovered for times of peak demand.

[nl.wikipedia.org]
[docstoc.com]
[abb.com]
[marketcoupling.com] – Market data

Read more…

Norway Europe’s Green Battery

Youtube text – Uploaded October 12, 2011 – Olav Hohmeyer is a professor in energy and natural resource sciences at the University of Flensburg. He is a member of the German Advisory Council on the Environment. They have recently given recommendations to the German government on pathways towards a 100 per cent renewable energy system by 2050. He will explain the key findings of this work and emphasize how Norwegian hydropower may play an important role to help Germany become 100 per cent renewable.

The big advantage of hydro storage is that it can be regulated on short notice. The total storage capacity in the Norwegian hydro system is about 84 TWh. The current German yearly electricity consumption is in the order of 500 TWh. The strictly theoretical maximum amount of Norwegian mainland hydropower production is 600 TWh. A more realistic figure is 200 TWh.
[source] – Hydro Electricity and Storage Capabilities in Norway – can they be useful for Europe? [pdf, 15p]

LakeBlasjo

[en.wikipedia.org] – Ulla-Førre, largest reservoir in Norway, capacity 7.8 TWh.

norway-subsea-power-connections
Norway subsea power connections (purple = existing cables)

More videos with prof. Olav Hohmeyer:

Uploaded 8 nov 2012 – „Die Showcity Flensburg ist ein Baustein, der den öffentlichen Nahverkehr attraktiver macht.” — Nobelpreisträger Prof. Dr. Olav Hohmeyer kommentiert das Projekt vor dem Hintergrund des Klimaschutzes.

Uploaded 3 nov 2010 – Nach der beschlossenen Verlängerung der Laufzeiten für Kernkraftwerke befürchten Kritiker, dass der Ausbau Erneuerbarer Energien ins Stocken geraten könnte. Olav Hohmeyer, Professor für Energie- und Ressourcenwirtschaft an der Universität Flensburg und Mitglied des Weltklimarats IPCC, beschreibt die Hintergründe der von ihm beobachteten Verzögerung beim Ausbau der Offshore-Windparks.

Uploaded 21 aug 2011 nano: Bericht 14.03.2011 Die Brücke stand schon “Brückentechnologie Atomkraft nicht notwendig” “Die Brücke zu erneuerbaren Energien stand bereits”, so Prof. Olav Hohmeyer vom Sachverständigenrat für Umweltfragen in Deutschland.

Geupload op 11 jun 2011 – Mittwoch, 08.06.2011 um 23:35 im Ersten So viel Energie steckte noch nie in der Diskussion um die Zukunft. Die Frage ist nicht mehr, ob wir die Atomkraftwerke abschalten können, sondern wie und wie schnell. 2022, 2020? Oder gar 2015, wie Gutachten renommierter Experten nahelegen. Prof. Olav Hohmeyer vom Zentrum für nachhaltige Energiesysteme in Flensburg ist sicher, dass bereits ab Anfang 2015 Deutschland zu jedem Zeitpunkt ohne Atomstrom versorgt werden kann, auch ohne Zukäufe aus dem Ausland. Es gebe keine regionalen Versorgungsengpässe und auch zu Zeiten der Jahreshöchstlast – meist einem Abend im Dezember – ist Strom für jeden Verbraucher in Deutschland gewährleistet. Die Kosten? Das Abschalten aller Atomkraftwerke in Deutschland wird den Durchschnittshaushalt allenfalls um einige Euro im Monat belasten. Für einen Zeitraum werden wir Kohle- und Gaskraftwerke vermehrt nutzen müssen, mit erhöhtem CO2-Ausstoß für einige Jahre. Danach wird die Klimabilanz aber wesentlich besser aussehen, als die Politik sie bisher geplant hat. Deutschland könnte spätestens 2050 seinen Strom komplett regenerativ herstellen. Mit politischer und gesellschaftlicher Bereitschaft ist dieses Ziel aber schon wesentlich früher zu erreichen.

Osmotic Power Plant In Norway

Youtube text: Osmotic Power – The energy is based on the natural phenomenon osmosis, defined as being the transport of water through a semi-permeable membrane. This is how plants can absorb moisture through their leaves — and retain it. When fresh water meets salt water, for instance where a river runs into the sea, enormous amounts of energy are released. This energy can be utilized for the generation of power through osmosis. At the osmotic power plant, fresh water and salt water are guided into separate chambers, divided by an artificial membrane. The salt molecules in the sea water pulls the freshwater through the membrane, increasing the pressure on the sea water side. The pressure equals a 120 metre water column, or a significant waterfall, and be utilized in a power generating turbine.

Statkraft prototype Tofte/Norway

A 10 kW prototype was realized in 2008. A commercial scale implementation is expected to become operational in 2015. This is expensive technology.

[power-technology.com]

[wikipedia.org] – Prototype Tofte/Hurum, Norway (10 kW)

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European Supergrid

Youtube text: Statnett and TenneT are installing the world’s longest submarine high voltage cable between Norway and the Netherlands. This animation gives a short overview about this extraordinary cable project.

[wikipedia] – European Supergrid
[wikipedia] – NorNed. Operational May 2008, length 580 km, budget € 600 million, power 700 MW.
[wikipedia] – BritNed. Operational April 2011, length 260 km, budget € 600 million, power 1000 MW.
[wikipedia] – NorGer. Operational in future, length 570 km, power 1400 MW.

Read more…

Renewables Are For Winners, Oil For Losers

[source]
Here are the results of the Legatum Prosperity Index, showing the world’s most and least prosperous nations in 2012. The most prosperous nations:

1. Norway
2. Denmark
3. Sweden
4. Australia
5. New Zealand
6. Canada
7. Finland
8. Netherlands
9. Switzerland
10. Ireland

[AOL]

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Solar Power From The Sea

DNV unveils its SUNdy floating solar field concept. Many countries are turning to solar technology and renewable energy because of a need for alternative energy sources and environmental concerns. To help meet these needs, DNV has developed SUNdy, a large-scale offshore solar field concept which launched at Singapore International Energy Week.

[dnv.com]

[leaflet]

Norway Wants to Become Europe’s Battery Pack

[source]
Because wind and solar energy are inconsistent, energy managers are looking for ways to fill in the gaps when it is dark outside and the air is still. A Norwegian company wants to turn hydroelectric power stations in the north into Europe’s battery packs.

[spiegel.de]

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World’s First Floating Windturbine

Animation of the world’s first floating wind turbine that was towed out into the North Sea in 2009. The 2.3MW Hywind was built by Siemens and is now on stream, according to owners Statoil. By 2011 they plan to build a 10MW floating turbine 533 feet tall with a rotor diameter of 475 feet.

[siemens.com]

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Forecast of Norwegian Oil Production


Forecast of Norwegian oil production. Peak production expected for 2016. Already in a decade production will have decreased to one third of the peak.

[theoildrum.com]

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