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Observing the renewable energy transition from a European perspective

Archive for the category “Russia”

Nord-Stream 2 Could be Used for Hydrogen

[source]

NW-Europe is too densely populated to be self-sufficient in generating renewable energy. It doesn’t need to be, as many potential suppliers are standing by to deliver hydrogen in return for Europe’s rich palette of products. Two potential suppliers are Russia and the Ukraine, who both have unused land in abundance. Germany has already signaled it is interested in hydrogen deals with both countries. The beauty is that transport can be done via existing pipeline infrastructure. An additional benefit is that hydrogen supply can be mixed with natural gas, while gradually increasing the share of hydrogen, achieving a smooth transition.

[rt.com] – Germany wants to talk to Russia about using Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline for hydrogen deliveries

Russian Ambitions to Become Major EU Hydrogen Supplier

[source] Vladimir Putin and Anatoly Chubais

MOSCOW, July 26. /TASS/. Russia will be able to occupy the developing European hydrogen market, if it creates an efficient hydrogen industry, special envoy of the Russian President for relations with international organizations on achievement of sustainable development goals Anatoly Chubais said on Monday… According to Chubais, Russia’s share of the European hydrogen market could amount to $20-30 bln… When asked about the preferred technology of hydrogen production in Russia… “It is right for Russia to start with blue [hydrogen] and then gradually increase the share of green”… But in the future, electrolysis plus renewable energy will provide economic benefits, he noted. “Russia has fantastic opportunities for renewable energy. Russia is the number one country in the world in terms of wind potential,” Chubais said.

Well, mr Chubais, what are you waiting for? The advantage Russia has, is a vast pipe-line network, that can be reused for hydrogen delivery to Europe. Western Europe has space problems, that could prevent the EU to achieve 100% renewable energy production within its own borders, and if somebody else can produce cheaper, why not? 100% decarbonization remains the goal, but that doesn’t necessarily imply 100% autarkic hydrogen production.

[tass.com] – Russia has chance to take over European hydrogen market
[wikipedia.org] – Anatoly Chubais

Germany, US Strike Nord Stream 2 Compromise Deal

This is more of a victory for Germany (and Russia) than a compromise deal, but Deutsche Welle no doubt wants to be diplomatic. This enhances the energy security of Germany and Europe, avoids a very expensive write-off of nearly finished pipe-line infrastructure, improves European-Russian relations, and hopefully prevents Russia being pushed into Chinese arms completely. It is also a clear sign of diminishing US influence in European affairs. As neo-Gaullists, promoting the geopolitical Paris-Berlin-Moscow axis, as well as the intended “Euro-Anglo seniority swap” in the near future, where the European Mother Civilization will have “1945” rolled-back and get the upper-hand over Anglosphere, this pipeline is exactly what is desired.

[spiegel.de] – Merkels Triumph
[spiegel.de] – Dieser Deal ist ein Triumph für Putin
[economist.com] – Macron warns Europe: NATO is becoming brain-dead
[telegraph.co.uk] – Lord Heseltine suggests Brexit vote allows Germany to win WW2
[reuters.com] – China presses Europe for anti-U.S. alliance on trade
[radio-nederland.nl] – Gerhard Schroeder podcast: China – Deutschlands starker Partner

Nord Stream II Completed by the End of August

Nord Stream announced that the 2nd and last stretch of the North Stream II sub sea pipeline will be completed by the end of August and used for fuel transport later this year.

[rt.com] – Russia’s Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline to be completed in August – project coordinator

Rosneft and Vestas Sign Cooperation Aggreement

[source]

Wind energy finally taking off in Russia. The Russians know better than anybody else that their conventional oil and gas reserves are finite, certainly in the light of enormous Eurasian demand for their fossil fuel products.

Earlier they had signed an agreement with the small Dutch wind manufacturer Lagerwey (currently owned by German Enercon), now Moscow puts wind developments into higher gear by cooperating with the world’s largest manufacturer Vestas.

The parties agreed to study potential sites for the construction of wind farms for the energy supply of Rosneft facilities and to determine the composition of energy equipment. In addition, the agreement provides for the supply, installation and maintenance of equipment.

It can be foreseen that Rosneft will follow the example of other European oil majors, like Shell and Total, and diversify its energy business into renewables.

[energycentral.com] – Rosneft and Vestas Rus Signed Agreement on Wind Power
[tass.com] – Rosatom and Dutch Lagerwey set up joint venture to produce wind turbines in Russia
[rechargenews.com] – Rosatom completes Russia’s largest wind farm with Lagerwey turbines
[dvhn.nl] – Russen leren bij Lagerwey alles over windenergie

First Stretch Nord Stream 2 Completed

President Putin of Russia prevailed, again. Nord Stream 2 is a geopolitical fact of the first order and will be an important stepping stone towards improving EU-Russian relations.

Vladimir Putin has just announced that one of the two legs of North Stream 2 has been completed and that gas is ready to be pumped from Russia to Germany. The second leg will be completed within two months.

For true Europeans, this is an event to celebrate.

[rt.com] – First stretch of Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline completed on Friday morning Putin reveals, despite vehement US objections to scheme
[reuters.com] – Putin says Nord Stream 2 gas link to be finished as U.S. seeks good European ties
[clingendael.org] – Macron’s overtures towards Russia deserve support, not scorn

Even traditionally Anglophile Netherlands and its #1 foreign policy think tank Clingendael understand that Russia is the future, certainly after Brexit (England out, Russia, Scotland, Ulster, Wales in). Russia is a European country (white, Christian, accepts the classic Greek-Roman heritage) and wants to be integrated into the European world. Together with Russia, Europa can finally escape from the embarrassing situation of being a colony of a former colony and can even begin to plan to reverse roles between Europe and a declining USA.

US Government Seems to Accept North Stream 2

According to media reports, the US government is waiving sanctions against the Nord Stream 2 pipeline project.

[axios.com] – Biden to waive sanctions on company in charge of Nord Stream 2
[n-tv.de] – Biden verzichtet auf weitere Sanktionen
[nos.nl] – VS ziet af van sancties tegen bedrijf achter Nord Stream 2

The pipeline will likely be completed before the long arm of the US deep state, the German Green Party, gets a chance to torpedo the project, in order to drive a wedge between the EU and Russia. This party is keen on reigniting the Cold War against Russia:

[faz.net] – “Mit Dialog und Härte” (“With dialog and hardness”) April 24, 2021.

Armin Laschet, in contrast, is known by the German and as such US Stadtholder media as “Putin-Versteher”. Like Macron, he wants to improve relations with Russia:

[welt.de] – Was die Putin-Versteher in Deutschland antreibt

Laschet was critical about the US-sponsored Syrian civil war:

[twitter.com] – Laschet critical of John Kerry, unheard of in German circumstances.

Armin Laschet is basically a CDU-Schroeder, the former German chancellor, who once remarked that the only thing he liked about the US is Elvis. Not that Laschet wants to break with the US, far from it, nor should he. It is just that he refuses to see in Putin-Russia an enemy. That’s good enough in the current circumstances.

For the rest, we keep our fingers crossed that the solid European Armin Laschet will become the next chancellor of Germany, in a coalition with the SPD and FDP. These people are more than green enough to see through the renewable energy transition. No need for woke Greens, whose open borders policies will only provoke the populist AfD to grow and threaten the energy transition and undermine the EU.

Russia to Present a Hybrid-Electric Plane in July 2021

The first aircraft with an electric motor [*] will be demonstrated at the MAKS International Air and Space Salon, taking place on July 20-25 in Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, Deputy Prime Minister Yuri Borisov told reporters this week.
“This is what was done with the Fund of Advanced Studies – an electric airplane based on superconductivity principles,” Borisov said. The electric motor is part of the hybrid powertrain demonstrator that Russia’s Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM) is developing.

An innovative electric motor based on high-temperature superconductors with a capacity of 500 kW (679 HP) was created by materials specialist Superox.

Trials of a promising superconductive aircraft electric motor started on February 5. A special flying laboratory has been created on the basis of the Yak-40 aircraft.

The advantage of a hybrid-plane is that it significantly reduces noise during take-off and landing.

[rt.com] – Russia to debut world’s first electric plane at MAKS 2021 airshow
[vpk.name] – Yak-40LL with a new electric motor is preparing for flight tests
[wikipedia.org] – Yakovlev Yak-40

[*] – That is pertinent nonsense. Here a German lightweight 100% e-plane, in 2015, able to cross the Alps, (obviously) on a single charge:

Russia Discovers the Hydrogen Economy

Two assets Russia has, others don’t: vast wind resource to produce hydrogen and pipelines to transport it to Europe, after the end of the oil and gas age.

Russia is sitting on the largest natural gas reserves in the world, but the renewable energy transition is a threat to its business model. One way to respond is to use methane CH4 reserves, strip it of its carbon contents and sell the resulting hydrogen. Technology exists that the carbon residue will be in solid form, that can be used for other purposes than just burning.

On top of that, Russia has potential vast wind resources near the Arctic Ocean in the North-West, it can use to produce hydrogen. That hydrogen can be transported via existing pipelines to European markets. Currently, Russia has 0.15% wind contribution to its electricity mix, but that should expand to 4.5% by 2024. Even Russia’s vast nuclear resources could be used to produce “yellow hydrogen”.

[oilprice.com] – Russia Looks To Become Leader In Hydrogen Tech
[germanwatch.org] – Hydrogen: A Future Cornerstone of EU-Russia Energy Relations?

Wolfgang Ischinger Proposes Nord Stream 2 Compromise

[spiegel.de] – A Possible Solution to the Nord Stream 2 Conundrum
[wikipedia.org] – Wolfgang Ischinger

Whatever.

As long as the pipeline gets completed and major continental European geopolitical facts are created.

Interesting new perspective:

Obviously, state-of-the-art technology has been used and the pipeline can transport up to 80% hydrogen. It is the compressors that would have to be adapted, which means 20% in additional costs.

[neweurope.eu] – What if Nord Stream 2 transports hydrogen?

Russia has endless empty landmasses, without NIMBYs, that could have huge wind farms installed that produce hydrogen, that could be pumped into the pipeline, providing a Russian source of revenue for after the end of the oil age, when America will be history and containing China the new challenge of Paris-Berlin-Moscow.

Chinese geopolitical visions of the near future, centered around their New Silk Road project, a closet-anti-Anglo Eurasian overland strategy. The last lines in the sidebar on the left read: “The Iron Silk Road will interlink about 75 per cent of the world’s population in more than 40 countries in Asia and Europe. China hopes to complete its massive infrastructure project within ten years. It will include at least one line running 320 km/hour and will shorten land-transport time between London and Beijing from 15 to only two days – if Europe is willing to connect, that is.” Of course, Europe should be willing as it would terminate the US empire, with Europe returning to world prominence, where it belongs, based on its immense heritage, second to none.

Just sell the pipeline as a weapon against climate change.

The Hydrolysis of NaBH4 with a Cobalt Catalyst

Highlights:

• The tablets based on NaBH4 have been employed as hydrogen generation materials.
• The kinetics of NaBH4 hydrolysis over different Co compounds has been studied.
• According to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism the kinetic data were analyzed.
• The observed reaction and adsorption constants for catalysts have been determined.
• The BH4‾ anion adsorption on catalyst is a key factor in NaBH4 hydrolysis.

Abstract:

Tablets on the basis of sodium borohydride and cobalt compounds (CoCl2·6H2O, Co(CH3COO)2·4H2O, Co3O4 and anhydrous CoSO4) have been studied as hydrogen generation materials. The kinetics of sodium borohydride hydrolysis upon contact of the tablets with water has been investigated. Adsorption and reaction constants have been determined for each of the catalysts using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model which allowed us to estimate the contribution of BH4‾ adsorption to the overall rate of hydrogen generation. It was noted that the nature of the catalyst precursor has an influence not only on the specific surface area of the in situ forming catalytically active phase, the particle size of the catalyst, the degree of reduction of cobalt compounds by sodium borohydride but also on the adsorption of BH4‾ anions from the reaction medium on the catalyst surface.

[sciencedirect.com] – Hydrogen storage systems based on solid-state NaBH4/Co composite: Effect of catalyst precursor on hydrogen generation rate

Airbus Plans Hydrogen Planes

The European aircraft manufacturer Airbus is planning for 3 prototypes, equiped with hydrogen propulsion.

1. Turboprop – Two hybrid hydrogen turboprop engines, which drive the six bladed propellers, provide thrust. The liquid hydrogen storage and distribution system is located behind the rear pressure bulkhead.
2. Turbofan – Two hybrid hydrogen turbofan engines provide thrust. The liquid hydrogen storage and distribution system is located behind the rear pressure bulkhead.
3. Blended-Wing Body (BWB) – The exceptionally wide interior opens up multiple options for hydrogen storage and distribution. Here, the liquid hydrogen storage tanks are stored underneath the wings. Two hybrid hydrogen turbofan engines provide thrust.

[spiegel.de] – Airbus plant Wasserstoff-Flugzeug
[airbus.com] – ZEROe, Towards the world’s first zero-emission commercial aircraft

The Soviets had a Tupolev-155 flying on hydrogen in 1988. Russian language video from what looks like an aircraft museum:

In the 1980s the russian aircraft producer Tupolev experimented with the use of LH2 in their aircraft. A Tupolev Tu-155 was rebuilt to run on the cryogenic fuel and proved that LH2 can produce sufficient thrust to power a commercial aircraft. Due to the extremely high hydrogen production prices present at that time, the project was unfortunately discontinued. The Tupolev study however did shed light on the great chemical properties of hydrogen. LH2 contains 2.8 times more energy than kerosene per unit mass and hence will save on aircraft weight. For the aerospace industry this is a great property as lightweight solutions are always highly preferred. On the other hand LH2 has very low energy density per unit volume meaning that for the same amount of energy LH2 will need four times more volume than kerosene.

[hydrogeneurope.eu] – Liquid Hydrogen Powered Commercial Aircraft

Completion North Stream 2 Could Begin Soon

[izwest.livejournal.com]

A Russian vessel capable of completing the pipelaying for the Gazprom-led Nord Stream 2 natural gas pipeline project left a German port on Wednesday and entered Danish waters where the last section of the controversial pipeline has yet to be completed.

[oilprice.com] – Russia-led Nord Stream 2 Gas Pipeline Could Be Completed Soon

Oilprice.com quotes Reuters:

[uk.reuters.com] – Russian vessel able to complete Nord Stream 2 pipeline departs from German port

However, at the time of writing this post, the Fortuna is indeed no longer moored at Mukran, but is NOT heading for Danish waters, but instead is anchored at the German port of Rostock:

[marinetraffic.com] – Fortuna position

Although there are clear signs that the US is preparing for anti-European sanctions over the pipeline, there are also signs that Europa feels strong enough to finally escape from the grip of the US empire:

[reuters.com] – EU prepares response to Nord Stream U.S. sanctions threat

After all, Europa can play the Eurasian card and team up with Russia and China, something both countries have quietly been hinting at for some time. And Brexit is a great help as well to finally decouple from Anglosphere.

[reuters.com] – China presses Europe for anti-U.S. alliance on trade
[amazon.com] – The End of the American Era
[rt.com] – ‘US losing world leadership, Europe can replace it’
[commondreams.org] – United States: An Obituary

Lagerwey Completes 150 MW Adygea Wind Project in Russia

Russia is late in the renewable energy game, due to its legacy of nuclear, oil & gas, but it has completed its largest wind farm project to date, the Adygea Wind Warm of 150 MW. The turbines are from the Dutch manufacturer Lagerwey: 60 x Lagerwey L100 2.5MW turbines.

The next largest wind farm with an installed capacity of 210 MW will appear in the Kochubeyevsky district of the Stavropol Kray. Overall, by 2023, the firm will install 1 GW of wind farms.

[iamrenew.com] – Rosatom’s 1st and Russia’s Largest Wind Farm Begins Supplying Electricity
[nsenergybusiness.com] – Adygea Wind Farm
[Google Maps] – Wind farm location

Russian FM Lavrov Confirms Nord Stream-2 Will be Built

Nord Stream-2 pipes in the harbor of Sassnitz-Germany, waiting to “get laid”. Symbolically, in the background an offshore installation vessel is moored. That vessel represents the future, the pipes the outgoing fossil fuel era.

…obstacles that have slowed the project’s completion, including Germany’s energy regulator declining to grant a waiver of European Union gas directives to the operators of the pipeline this month, would only result in higher gas prices for Europe, the TASS news agency reported.

Position of two Russian pipe-laying vessels, both currently moored near Sassnitz-Ruegen:

[marinetraffic.com] – Akademik Charskiy
[marinetraffic.com] – Fortune

[reuters.com]

Nord Stream 2 – Pipe Layer Akademik Cherskiy in the Baltic

[source] Nord Stream 2 pipes, at Sassnitz, waiting to be installed in the Baltic.

Russian pipe-laying vessel Akademik Cherskiy has arrived in the Baltic in order to complete the missing last ca. 150 km of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline between Vyborg-Russia and Greifswald-Germany. Most of the work has been done by the Dutch company Allseas, but withdrew itself from the project after the threat of sanctions from the US government, that doesn’t want EU-Russian relations become too cosy.

[marinetraffic.com] – AKADEMIK CHERSKIY
[wikipedia.org] – Nord Stream

North Stream 2 to be Completed

The Russian pipe-layer vessel Akademik Cherskiy has arrived in the Baltic to complete North Stream 2 construction works and create major geopolitical facts.

[marinetraffic.com] – Position Akademik Cherskiy
[112.international] – Russian pipelaying ship arrives in Baltic Sea to complete Nord Stream II construction works
[rt.com] – Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline to Germany to be launched before end-2020

Lagerwey L100 – Inside an Efficient Large Wind Turbine

Lagerwey is a grass-roots Dutch wind turbine and tower manufacturer that produces the entire wind turbine chain itself and is around since 1979. Lagerwey has a “special relationship” with Russia in order to get the wind energy revolution off the ground in Russia too by licensing Lagerwey technology to Russian companies.

[lagerwey.com] – Lagerwey company site
[nl.wikipedia.org] – Lagerwey
[windenergie-magazine.nl] – Lagerwey trains Russian wind energy specialists
[climatechangenews.com] – Russia formally joins Paris climate agreement
[lagerwey.com] – Lagerwey and NovaWind launch joint venture Red Wind
[rosatom.ru] – Russian wind industry boosted by joint venture between ROSATOM and Lagerwey

Denmark Approves Nord Stream II Trajectory over its Territory

Major geopolitical event!

Denmark has given the green light for the Russia-led Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline to pass through its waters. Copenhagen’s delay in granting permission has been the main hurdle to completing the project on time.

Pipeline expected to be operational before the end of this year.

[rt.com] – Full stream ahead! Denmark removes final hurdle for Russian gas pipeline to Europe
[spiegel.de] – Dänemark erteilt Genehmigung für Nord Stream 2

Nord Stream 2 Update

Two more months and the Nord Stream II pipeline project will be completed, despite a lot of geopolitical pressure to abandon the project. The last remaining hurdle is related to Denmark, that unfortunately is too afraid for US sanctions and so far has refused to grant permission to lay a part of the pipeline in its waters. Putting that part of the pipeline in international waters, is an alternative, but will come at hundreds of millions extra cost. Gazprom has announced it will opt for that solution if the Danes refuse to cooperate. Once that pipeline will be a fait accompli it will remain there, even if unused for a couple of years, until geopolitical conditions will have changed, like a growing rift between the EU and US+UK in the wake of Brexit or a war in the Gulf.

[rt.com] – Pipeline to bring Russian gas to Europe is 3/4 complete
[pipeline-journal.net] – Denmark Under Pressure to Acquiesce to Nordstream 2
[wikipedia.org] – Nord Stream

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