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Archive for the category “Sweden”

Thermal Solar to Electricity Conversion Efficiency 34% With Stirling Engine

CSP-Stirling is known to have the highest efficiency of all solar technologies (around 30%, compared to solar photovoltaic’s approximately 15%), and is predicted to be able to produce the cheapest energy among all renewable energy sources in high-scale production and hot areas, semi-deserts, etc.[citation needed] A dish Stirling system uses a large, reflective, parabolic dish (similar in shape to a satellite television dish). It focuses all the sunlight that strikes the dish up onto a single point above the dish, where a receiver captures the heat and transforms it into a useful form. Typically the dish is coupled with a Stirling engine in a Dish-Stirling System, but also sometimes a steam engine is used. These create rotational kinetic energy that can be converted to electricity using an electric generator.

In 2005 Southern California Edison announced an agreement to purchase solar powered Stirling engines from Stirling Energy Systems over a twenty-year period and in quantities (20,000 units) sufficient to generate 500 megawatts of electricity. In January 2010, Stirling Energy Systems and Tessera Solar commissioned the first demonstration 1.5-megawatt power plant (“Maricopa Solar”) using Stirling technology in Peoria, Arizona. At the beginning of 2011 Stirling Energy’s development arm, Tessera Solar, sold off its two large projects, the 709 MW Imperial project and the 850 MW Calico project to AES Solar and K.Road, respectively. In 2012 the Maricopa plant was bought and dismantled by United Sun Systems. United Sun Systems released a new generation system, based on a V-shaped Stirling engine and a peak production of 33 kW. The new CSP-Stirling technology brings down LCOE to USD 0.02 in utility scale.[citation needed]

According to its developer, Rispasso Energy, a Swedish firm, in 2015 its Dish Sterling system being tested in the Kalahari Desert in South Africa showed 34% efficiency.

Website comment: interesting! But one would tentatively guess that an array of solar panels will probably be cheaper in a long-term per kWh cost.

[wikipedia.org] – Solar Thermal Energy, Dish Designs
[ripassoenergy.com] – Company Site

Stirling Engine & Solar Thermal Power

Simple solar thermal power with a Stirling engine. Storage comes included.

[pointfocus.com] – EuroDish – Stirling System Description
[azelio.com] – Company site
[swedishcleantech.com] – Company site

Read more…

Hybrid Storage

[wikipedia.org] – Elfa International
[elfa-hybrid.eu] – Official site

Long Term Storage of Heat in Isomers

Chalmers University in Sweden has come up with a novel way of long-term (years) storing (solar) heat, namely in isomers.

– Discharge operating temperature: 63 C
– Storage capacity: 0.25 kWh/kg (2x Tesla Powerwall)
– 125 charge-discharge cycles without detoriation.

Researcher Moth-Poulsen thinks there is a lot of potential for improvement, like operating temperatures of 110 C.

[sciencealert.com] – Scientists Develop Liquid Fuel That Can Store The Sun’s Energy
[wiley.com] – Liquid Norbornadiene Photoswitches for Solar Energy Storage
[mynewsdesk.com] – Emissions-free energy system stores heat
[pubs.rsc.org] – Macroscopic heat release in a molecular solar thermal energy storage system
[wikipedia.org] – Isomer
[nbcnews.com] – Scientists bottle solar energy and turn it into liquid fuel
[wikipedia.org] – Norbornadiene
[wikipedia.org] – Quadricyclane

Arlanda Test Results

The idea: mount a metal conductor strip/rail to the road and voila, you have an e-road, a sort of inverted trolley-bus system for cars and trucks. If a country like Sweden would install these rails in the main routes only, ensuring that no home would be further away from a road with such a rail, it would reduce the required size of the battery of e-vehicles enormously. Think 50 kg instead of 400 kg, because the car would charge the battery during driving.

A test route was equipped with a conducting rail earlier this year and the test results are in. And they are encouraging. 200 kW can be delivered, think a truck. The system works good under snow and ice conditions. No need for heating the rail.

Back-of-an-envelope calculation of the cost of an e-road system: The producer Elways claims that the cost per kilometer for 2 lanes is less than 1 million dollar. Go to Google Maps to verify that from Malmö in the South to Gällivare in the North it is 1740 km over road. Two parallel North-South roads exist, that’s 3500 km at a varying distance of 50-150 km. Add some East-West legs to connect these two roads and you arrive at perhaps 5,000 km or less than 5 billion $ to electrify your roads. Sweden has 10 million citizens, so that would be 500 $/capita. That’s very affordable. Note that autonomous driving will relieve the population of the need of owning a car, reducing the per mile cost with a factor of 4-10 according to this study.

More videos below and even more in the elways-link.

[elways.se] – Arlanda Test Results
[deepresource] – E-Road, E-Vehicles Breakthrough in Sweden?

Read more…

HYBRIT – Fossil Free Steel

Global crude steel production in 2017: 1.69 billion metric ton.
Every metric ton of produced steel comes with 1.83 ton CO2 emission.
Total global CO2 emissions are 3.09 billion metric ton.
Total global CO2 emission are 50 billion metric ton.
In other words, steel production is responsible for ca. 6% of global CO2 emission.

The Swedish HYBRIT program aims at taking out these 6% by switching from coal to hydrogen, replacing CO2 emissions with the harmless output of water.

[source]

[vattenfall.com] – HYBRIT: Globally-unique Pilot Plant for creating Fossil-free steel
[ssab.com] – HYBRIT – Toward fossil-free steel
[hrcak.srce.hr] – CO2 Emissions in the Steel Industry
[wikipedia.org] – List of countries by steel production
[worldsteel.org] –

E-Road – The Somewhat Different Railroad

Uniti Electric Car

New electric car from Sweden, the Uniti. Project began at the university of Lund starting with a crowd funding of €1,227,990. To be bought online and brought to your doorstep (still by a human driver). On the market as of 2019/2020, first in India.
Range: 300 km, weight 450 kg, charge to 80% in less than 15 minutes, 75 kW peak power, 0-80 kmh < 3.5 sec, battery 22 kWh, efficiency 20 km on 1.0 kWh. Topspeed 90-130 kmh, depending on the version. 2 passengers sitting behind each other. The car has autonomous driving functions. Price tag “under €19,900” or ~$23,400 USD.

German industrial giant Siemens is involved and a production facility near Malmo will produce 50,000 units per year as off 2018.

[uniti.earth] – Official site
[wikipedia.org] – Uniti
[cleantechnica.com] – Uniti Electric Car Pre-Orders Reach $60 Million

E-Road, E-Vehicles Breakthrough in Sweden?

2 km of rail has been embedded in a road near Stockholm, capital of Sweden. Purpose: offering the infrastructure required to charge vehicles while they are driving, reducing the need for have batteries. If the entire Swedish highway network of 20,000 km would be equipped with these kind of rails, batteries would only be needed to bridge a maximum of 45 km, reducing the size of car batteries with a factor of 5-10.

[eroadarlanda.com] – E-road Arlanda
[theguardian.com] – World’s first electrified road for charging vehicles opens in Sweden
[Google Maps]

Vattenfall Orders 1 GW Wind Park from Siemens-gamesh

The largest offshore wind order of 2017: the three wind farms, Kriegers Flak in the Baltic Sea and Vesterhav Syd and Nord in the North Sea, have a total investment value of close to EUR 1.7 billion (SEK 16.5 billion).

[vattenfall.com] – Vattenfall Places Historically Large Wind Power Order
[4coffshore.com] – Vesterhav Nord/Syd Offshore Wind Farm
[offshorewind.biz] – Vattenfall Inks Danish Offshore Wind Contracts

Largest European Battery Plant to be Built in Sweden

[source]

The Swiss engineering company ABB has teamed up with Northvolt of Sweden to build the largest lithium-ion battery plant in Europe in order to meet growing demand from the automotive industry. The plant should rival the Gigafactory in the Nevada desert. Target: 32 GWh in 2023. 80-100 million euro will be necessary to get production started.

[reuters.com] – ABB teams up with Northvolt on Europe’s biggest battery plant

Leif Holmnid & Ultra Dense Fusion

Fusion energy may soon be used in small-scale power stations. This means producing environmentally friendly heating and electricity at a low cost from fuel found in water. Both heating generators and generators for electricity could be developed within a few years, according to research that has primarily been conducted at the University of Gothenburg… A collaboration between researchers at the University of Gothenburg and the University of Iceland has been to study a new type of nuclear fusion process. This produces almost no neutrons but instead fast, heavy electrons (muons), since it is based on nuclear reactions in ultra-dense heavy hydrogen (deuterium)… The new fusion process can take place in relatively small laser-fired fusion reactors fuelled by heavy hydrogen (deuterium). It has already been shown to produce more energy than that needed to start it… Research shows that far smaller and simpler fusion reactors can be built. The next step is to create a generator that produces instant electrical energy.

[phys.org] – Small-scale nuclear fusion may be a new energy source
[arxiv.org] – Leif Holmnid on ultra dense deuterium
[wikipedia.org] – Rydberg matter
[chem.gu.se] – Leif Holmlid Professor emeritus
[asme.org] – Small Reactor with Big Potential
[atom-ecology.russgeorge.net] – Magnificent magnum opus on ultra dense fusion
[sciencedaily.com] – Ultra-dense Deuterium May Be Nuclear Fuel Of The Future
[journals.plos.org] – Mesons from Laser-Induced Processes in Ultra-Dense Hydrogen

Under Water Kites

Youtube text:

Minesto develops a new concept for tidal power plants called Deep Green. Deep Green is based on a fundamentally new principle for electricity generation from tidal currents. The power plant is applicable in areas where no other known technology can operate cost effectively due to its unique ability to operate in low velocities. Minesto expands the total marine energy potential and offers a step change in cost for tidal energy.

The principle of the technology can be explained as a two stage process.

The first stage increases the relative flow speed entering a turbine. When the tide hits the wing it creates a lift force, since the kite is mounted to the ocean bed with a tether and is controlled by a rudder, the kite can be taken in the desired trajectory, here in an eight formed path. The method increases the flow velocity into the turbine by 10 times, compared to the actual stream velocity.

The second stage uses a generator to convert kinetic energy into electrical power.

The net result is increased power from a smaller package. The planned normal full size weighs only 7 tons excluding anchoring which gives an energetic payback time of 3 weeks, compared to 8 months for onshore wind.

The test confirms power production of the plant at Marin in Holland.

Potential: 800 kW per kite
First project: Anglesey, Wales/UK (Holyhead Deep)
Project size: eventually 80 MW
Span width kite: 12 meter
Argument pro under water kite: one needs 15 times less material per generated kWh as compared to wind turbines

[wikipedia.org] – Tidal kite turbines
[minesto.com] – Minesto Holyhead Deep, 30 million euro project
[trouw.nl] – Een onderwater-vlieger haalt stroom uit de stroming

IKEA 100% Renewable Energy by 2020

Swedish furniture giant with global reach IKEA has announced that it strives to become 100% sustainable. For starters 100% of the energy IKEA consumes will be produced “renewable” by 2020.

[ikea.com] – IKEA 2015 Sustainability Report

ikea-world-map

SeaTwirl Offshore Wind Power

[wikipedia.org] – SeaTwirl
[seatwirl.com]

Prototype Halmstad, Swedish west coast

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