DeepResource

Observing the renewable energy transition from a European perspective

Archive for the category “Sweden”

Northvolt Plans to Build 2 Battery Factories

Swedish company Northvolt plans to build the large battery factories, one in Skellefteå, Sweden and the other in Salzgitter, Germany. Investment volume $3 billion. Annual production capacity 150 GWh in 10 years time or 20-25% of the European lithium-ion market. 85% of that market will be vehicles, the other 15% stationary applications. Northvolt also wants to enter in recycling and hopes to source 50% of its material input from used batteries. Production in Sweden could begin next year.

[cleantechnica.com] – Northvolt: $3 Billion For 2 Battery Gigafactories In Europe
[northvolt.com] – Company site
[wikipedia.org] – Northvolt

Read more…

Hydrogen Storage Facility for Steel Production

SSAB, LKAB and Vattenfall, the owners behind the HYBRIT initiative, are investing SEK 150 million towards the construction of a storage facility for hydrogen at the HYBRIT pilot plant for fossil-free steel. The Swedish Energy Agency is contributing almost SEK 50 million. The investment is an important step towards fossil-free iron and steel production… The initiative has the potential to reduce Sweden’s total carbon dioxide emissions by 10 percent.

[nptprocestechnologie] – SEK 200 Million in Pilot Storage Fossil-Free Hydrogen
[nsenergybusiness.com] – SSAB, LKAB, and Vattenfall to invest $20m in HYBRIT hydrogen storage facility
[deepresource] – HYBRIT – Fossil Free Steel

First Wooden Wind Tower Installed

The Swedish company Modvion has installed its first wooden wind turbine near Gothenburg.

[deepresource] – Movdion Produces 110m Wind Towers Made of Wood

Read more…

How to Manufacture a Crib Entirely Fossil-Free

Long version, mixed Dutch/English language.

There are many renewable energy skeptics who claim that a renewable energy base won’t work, because, you see, “renewable energy is an extension of fossil fuel“. Vattenfal-Nederland showed that it is already possible to produce a child’s crib and mattress, entirely without fossil fuel. Paint from potatoes, transport by sail boat and e-vehicle, all machines are electric, steel produced with electricity. The cloth for the mattress is still made by hand. No cotton from abroad, but from locally-grown linen. The mattress filling was made from sheep wool, that had to come from the island of Texel. Use of the natural-gas powered ferry was out of the question, hence the sailing boat.

Vattenfall has the slogan “fossil-free within one generation“. And the first think the next generation will need is a crib.

Short Version.

Movdion Produces 110m Wind Towers Made of Wood

The Swedish company Modvion has installed its first wind tower made from laminated wood on the island of Björkö outside Gothenburg. The tower has a height of 30m.

The highest existing wooden tower in the world has a height of 118m, the infamous Gliwice transmitter tower in Poland, built in 1935, that gained some notoriety in the outbreak of WW2.

Modvion wants to break the record and build a laminated wooden tower of 110m high, carrying a wind rotor, that will lead to a structure of 150m in total. The energy company Varberg Energi will buy and install the first exemplar.

[renewableenergymagazine.com] – First Wooden Wind Power Tower In Sweden
[advancedsciencenews.com] – Energy from Wood and Wind
[modvion.com] – Company site

Hydrogen Perfect Fossil Fuel Replacement in Steel production

Dang, yet another nail in the coffin of those who claim that renewable energy is an extension of fossil fuel, where in reality it is a fossil fuel killer. The Swedish steel producer Ovako and partner Linde Gas AB has successfully completed a test run where they managed to produce steel with hydrogen. The quality of the end-product was the same as traditional produced steel.

[wikipedia.org] – Ovako
[waterstofmagazine.nl] – Waterstof goede vervanger van fossiele brandstof bij metaalproductie

Siemens eHighway

In the follow-up project, ENUBA 2, Siemens entered into a partnership with Scania, a Swedish company. The focus is on optimizing the integration of the drive system and pantograph into the vehicle and on providing the necessary traffic control systems.
The picture shows a driving scene at the extended eHighway test track in Groß Dölln, Germany

In Germany there are now several test roads for the purposes of developing an overhead line system for trucks. Locations: Hessen, Schleswich-Holstein and Brandenburg.

[spiegel.de] – Sieht so der Laster der Zukunft aus?
[wikipedia.org] – Trolleytruck

Schleswich-Holstein test highway

Hessen test highway

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Storing Solar Heat for Decades

[bloomberg.com] – An Energy Breakthrough Could Store Solar Power for Decades
[deepresource] – Long Term Storage of Heat in Isomers
[moth-poulsen.com] – Moth Poulsen personal site
[twitter.com] – Moth Poulsen Twitter account
[dailymail.co.uk] – Scientists discover extraordinary way to turn normal windows into emission-free solar panels which can store energy for nearly TWO DECADES

Thermal Storage with Norbornadiene-Quadricyclane

MSM – Molecular Storage Material, L-PCM – Localized Phase-Change Material

University of Houston proposed a new solar thermal battery:

Efficient solar thermal energy harvesting and storage are critical steps toward utilizing the abundant solar irradiation that reaches the surface of the earth. Current solar thermal approaches rely on costly high optical concentration systems, leading to high heat losses by hot bulk materials and surfaces. At the same time, the energy stored in the form of thermal energy has inherently large temporal losses. Here, we combine the physics of molecular energy and latent heat storage to introduce an integrated, simultaneous harvesting and storage hybrid paradigm for potential 24/7 energy delivery. The hybrid paradigm utilizes heat localization during the day to provide a harvesting efficiency of 73% at small scale and ∼90% at large scale. Remarkably, at night, the stored energy by the hybrid system is recovered with an efficiency of 80% and at a higher temperature than that of the day, in contrast to all of the state-of-the-art systems.

[cell.com] – Full Spectrum Solar Thermal Energy Harvesting and Storage by a Molecular and Phase-Change Hybrid Material

[uh.edu] – New Hybrid Device Can Both Capture and Store Solar Energy

Greta Thunberg Speaks at Edmonton Rally

Siemens eHighway

Seven year old Siemens video

It already works for trains and trolleybuses, so why not for trucks as well? Trucks powered by overhead-wires. A test stretch has been build near Frankfurt, on the A5-motorway between Langen and Weiterstadt.

[siemens.com] – eHighway – Electrification of road freight transport
[cleantechnica.com] – Germany Launches eHighway Project
[Google Maps] – Location

Sweden apparently has an eHighway as well.

[scania.com] – World’s first electric road opens in Sweden

Thermal Solar to Electricity Conversion Efficiency 34% With Stirling Engine

CSP-Stirling is known to have the highest efficiency of all solar technologies (around 30%, compared to solar photovoltaic’s approximately 15%), and is predicted to be able to produce the cheapest energy among all renewable energy sources in high-scale production and hot areas, semi-deserts, etc.[citation needed] A dish Stirling system uses a large, reflective, parabolic dish (similar in shape to a satellite television dish). It focuses all the sunlight that strikes the dish up onto a single point above the dish, where a receiver captures the heat and transforms it into a useful form. Typically the dish is coupled with a Stirling engine in a Dish-Stirling System, but also sometimes a steam engine is used. These create rotational kinetic energy that can be converted to electricity using an electric generator.

In 2005 Southern California Edison announced an agreement to purchase solar powered Stirling engines from Stirling Energy Systems over a twenty-year period and in quantities (20,000 units) sufficient to generate 500 megawatts of electricity. In January 2010, Stirling Energy Systems and Tessera Solar commissioned the first demonstration 1.5-megawatt power plant (“Maricopa Solar”) using Stirling technology in Peoria, Arizona. At the beginning of 2011 Stirling Energy’s development arm, Tessera Solar, sold off its two large projects, the 709 MW Imperial project and the 850 MW Calico project to AES Solar and K.Road, respectively. In 2012 the Maricopa plant was bought and dismantled by United Sun Systems. United Sun Systems released a new generation system, based on a V-shaped Stirling engine and a peak production of 33 kW. The new CSP-Stirling technology brings down LCOE to USD 0.02 in utility scale.[citation needed]

According to its developer, Rispasso Energy, a Swedish firm, in 2015 its Dish Sterling system being tested in the Kalahari Desert in South Africa showed 34% efficiency.

Website comment: interesting! But one would tentatively guess that an array of solar panels will probably be cheaper in a long-term per kWh cost.

[wikipedia.org] – Solar Thermal Energy, Dish Designs
[ripassoenergy.com] – Company Site

Stirling Engine & Solar Thermal Power

Simple solar thermal power with a Stirling engine. Storage comes included.

[pointfocus.com] – EuroDish – Stirling System Description
[azelio.com] – Company site
[swedishcleantech.com] – Company site

Read more…

Hybrid Storage

[wikipedia.org] – Elfa International
[elfa-hybrid.eu] – Official site

Long Term Storage of Heat in Isomers

Chalmers University in Sweden has come up with a novel way of long-term (years) storing (solar) heat, namely in isomers.

– Discharge operating temperature: 63 C
– Storage capacity: 0.25 kWh/kg (2x Tesla Powerwall)
– 125 charge-discharge cycles without detoriation.

Researcher Moth-Poulsen thinks there is a lot of potential for improvement, like operating temperatures of 110 C.

[sciencealert.com] – Scientists Develop Liquid Fuel That Can Store The Sun’s Energy
[wiley.com] – Liquid Norbornadiene Photoswitches for Solar Energy Storage
[mynewsdesk.com] – Emissions-free energy system stores heat
[pubs.rsc.org] – Macroscopic heat release in a molecular solar thermal energy storage system
[wikipedia.org] – Isomer
[nbcnews.com] – Scientists bottle solar energy and turn it into liquid fuel
[wikipedia.org] – Norbornadiene
[wikipedia.org] – Quadricyclane

Arlanda Test Results

The idea: mount a metal conductor strip/rail to the road and voila, you have an e-road, a sort of inverted trolley-bus system for cars and trucks. If a country like Sweden would install these rails in the main routes only, ensuring that no home would be further away from a road with such a rail, it would reduce the required size of the battery of e-vehicles enormously. Think 50 kg instead of 400 kg, because the car would charge the battery during driving.

A test route was equipped with a conducting rail earlier this year and the test results are in. And they are encouraging. 200 kW can be delivered, think a truck. The system works good under snow and ice conditions. No need for heating the rail.

Back-of-an-envelope calculation of the cost of an e-road system: The producer Elways claims that the cost per kilometer for 2 lanes is less than 1 million dollar. Go to Google Maps to verify that from Malmö in the South to Gällivare in the North it is 1740 km over road. Two parallel North-South roads exist, that’s 3500 km at a varying distance of 50-150 km. Add some East-West legs to connect these two roads and you arrive at perhaps 5,000 km or less than 5 billion $ to electrify your roads. Sweden has 10 million citizens, so that would be 500 $/capita. That’s very affordable. Note that autonomous driving will relieve the population of the need of owning a car, reducing the per mile cost with a factor of 4-10 according to this study.

More videos below and even more in the elways-link.

[elways.se] – Arlanda Test Results
[deepresource] – E-Road, E-Vehicles Breakthrough in Sweden?

Read more…

HYBRIT – Fossil Free Steel

Global crude steel production in 2017: 1.69 billion metric ton.
Every metric ton of produced steel comes with 1.83 ton CO2 emission.
Total global CO2 emissions are 3.09 billion metric ton.
Total global CO2 emission are 50 billion metric ton.
In other words, steel production is responsible for ca. 6% of global CO2 emission.

The Swedish HYBRIT program aims at taking out these 6% by switching from coal to hydrogen, replacing CO2 emissions with the harmless output of water.

[source]

[vattenfall.com] – HYBRIT: Globally-unique Pilot Plant for creating Fossil-free steel
[ssab.com] – HYBRIT – Toward fossil-free steel
[hrcak.srce.hr] – CO2 Emissions in the Steel Industry
[wikipedia.org] – List of countries by steel production
[worldsteel.org] –

E-Road – The Somewhat Different Railroad

Uniti Electric Car

New electric car from Sweden, the Uniti. Project began at the university of Lund starting with a crowd funding of €1,227,990. To be bought online and brought to your doorstep (still by a human driver). On the market as of 2019/2020, first in India.
Range: 300 km, weight 450 kg, charge to 80% in less than 15 minutes, 75 kW peak power, 0-80 kmh < 3.5 sec, battery 22 kWh, efficiency 20 km on 1.0 kWh. Topspeed 90-130 kmh, depending on the version. 2 passengers sitting behind each other. The car has autonomous driving functions. Price tag “under €19,900” or ~$23,400 USD.

German industrial giant Siemens is involved and a production facility near Malmo will produce 50,000 units per year as off 2018.

[uniti.earth] – Official site
[wikipedia.org] – Uniti
[cleantechnica.com] – Uniti Electric Car Pre-Orders Reach $60 Million

E-Road, E-Vehicles Breakthrough in Sweden?

2 km of rail has been embedded in a road near Stockholm, capital of Sweden. Purpose: offering the infrastructure required to charge vehicles while they are driving, reducing the need for have batteries. If the entire Swedish highway network of 20,000 km would be equipped with these kind of rails, batteries would only be needed to bridge a maximum of 45 km, reducing the size of car batteries with a factor of 5-10.

[eroadarlanda.com] – E-road Arlanda
[theguardian.com] – World’s first electrified road for charging vehicles opens in Sweden
[Google Maps]

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