DeepResource

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Archive for the category “UK”

2050 – An Energetic Odyssee

Fascinating English-spoken video of Dutch origin [*], with graphics illustrating the energy policy of the European Union for 2050 (of which Britain will no longer be a part after Brexit). Core of solving the energy and climate problems are 25,000 10 MW offshore turbines that will provide the countries bordering the North Sea with 90% of its electricity needs and leaving ample additional capacity potential to provide the rest of Europe with energy as well, in the form of electricity or hydrogen.

[deingenieur.nl] – 25.000 Windturbines in Noordzee
[iabr.nl] – 2050 – Een Energieke Ontdekkingsreis

[*] – A production of IABR in cooperation with Ministerie van Economische Zaken, Van Oord, Shell, TenneT, Zeeland Seaports, European Climate Foundation, RWE, Natuur & Milieu, Havenbedrijf Rotterdam and Havenbedrijf Amsterdam e.o.

BBC – The World in 2050

The World In 2050 [The Real Future Of Earth] – Full BBC Documentary 2017

European North Sea Energy Alliance

The old and near obsolete North Sea oil & gas infrastructure can be reused for the coming reneweable energy base, where the North Sea will play a central role. Core themes ENSEA:

Energy system: The infrastructure and processes that deliver power to end users and includes the electricity and gas supply networks, power generators (both large and centralised land small and decentralised) and other assets.

Balancing: Regulation of energy production, storage and consumption in order to equalise the production and consumption at any time (e.g. by quick regulating gas power plants) to keep the electrical energy system secure.

Back up: Energy production capacity which is in standby to react quickly when there is a difference in energy production and consumption e.g. because of fluctuating production of renewable energy sources like wind and solar energy.

Storage: Small capacity storage and high power pumps (e.g. flywheels or batteries) capable for operating for minutes or hours, or larger capacity storage necessary for extended periods without production from renewable sources.

Infrastructure (electricity grid): Smart grid infrastructures designed for both supply to customers as well as production of power within these grids.

[ensea.biz] – European North Sea Energy Alliance
[wikipedia.org] – OSPAR Convention
[ensea.biz] – ENSEA flyer
[deepresource] – Gold Mine North Sea

Jutland/Denmark now also member of ENSEA:

[ensea.biz] – Associated Partner Denmark

[wikipedia.org] – Sabatier reaction

CO2 + 4H2 → CH4 + 2H2O   ∆H = −165.0 kJ/mol

Hydrogen can be won from water and electrolysis, using renewable electricity. Hydrogen is explosive and needs to be stored at very low temperatures. By mixing it with the superfluous greenhouse gas CO2 (an exothermic reaction, meaning you get extra heat), you get methane, which is far easier to handle. And you solve the storage problem.

3 x 1.2 GW Wind Parks to be Built in Spain and Britain

[source] La Mancha, Don Quixote and Windmills. Nobody fighting the Spanish wind mills this time around.

The wind is blowing in the right direction for the European wind industry these days. 3 giant 1.2 GW wind projects have been given the green light, one Spanish onshore in North-East Aragon and two offshore in the North Sea off the coast of England: Hornsea I and East Anglia III, the first with 7MW Siemens wind turbines. The British projects are supposed to be completed by 2020 and 2025 respectively.

[wikipedia.org] – Hornsea Wind Farm
[wikipedia.org] – East Anglia Array
[reuters.com] – ScottishPower Renewables gets planning approval for 1.2 GW offshore windfarm
[genewsroom.com] – Forestalia Selects GE Renewable Energy to Provide 1.2 GW Wind Power in the Largest European Auction to Date
[renewablesnow.com] – Dong makes final investment decision on 1.2-GW wind project off UK
[ge.com] – Generation Next: Wind Already More Powerful Than All Nuclear Plants Combined

Scotlands Generates 124% Wind Electricity Jan-Jun-2017

Statoil of Norway busy constructing floating wind turbines for the Scottish Hywind projects.

Scotland makes impressive progress with installing renewable power. During the first half of 2017 124% of Scotland’s electricity needs were met from wind power alone. According to a report, Scotland could be fossil-free by 2030.

[cleantechnica.com] – Wind Power = 124% of Scotland’s Home Electricity Needs January–June 2017
[theguardian.com] – Scotland could be fossil fuel-free by 2030, says report

Hywind Scotland Floating Wind Turbines Pilot Completed

A small 30 MW wind farm has been completed in the waters of Stord, Norway and will be towed to Scotland. The project consists of five 6 MW wind turbines. What makes the project unique is that the turbines are floating, ensuring that shallow water is no longer necessary for offshore wind to work.

[gamesacorp.com] – Innovation in world´s largest floating wind farm by Siemens Gamesa can open new offshore areas
[wikipedia.org] – Floating wind turbine
[wikpedia.org] – Hywind
[fastcompany.com] – Scotland Will Be Home To The World’s Largest Floating Wind Farm
[spiegel.de] – Schottlands schwimmende Windkraftwerke

Van Oord to Build East-Anglia Wind Farm Foundation

Van Oord has been awarded the contract for East Anglia ONE offshore windfarm by ScottishPower Renewables (part of the Iberdrola Group) for the transport and installation of 102 three-legged jacket foundations. This is the largest amount of three-legged foundations in a wind farm ever installed worldwide. The East Anglia ONE offshore windfarm is located in the southern North Sea, 45 kilometers southeast of the town of Lowestoft, United Kingdom. The offshore wind farm will have 102 Siemens 7 MW wind turbines, with a total capacity of 714 MW. Once operational in 2020, the offshore wind farm will deliver sustainable energy to 500,000 households.

Van Oord will be responsible for the logistics of all jacket foundations and piles, sourced from various suppliers, and the transport to the marshalling port of Flushing in The Netherlands. From there the foundations will be transported and installed with an installation vessel. The installation work is planned between half of April 2018 and the end of October 2018.

[source]

[vanoord.com] – Van Oord signs contract for East Anglia ONE offshore windfarm
[wikipedia.org] – East Anglia Array
[cleantechnica.com] – Siemens Awarded 714 MW Contract For East Anglia ONE
[scottishpowerrenewables.com] – East Anglia ONE

Walney Extension Wind Farm Irish Sea Under Construction

The Walney 367 MW 102 wind turbine wind farm is one of the largest offshore wind farms in the world today. The construction of an extension is now under way to be carried out by Dong Energy of Denmark, which will add new very large turbines: 40 8MW Vestas V164 for Phase 1 and 47 7MW Siemens gearless turbine for Phase 2. Together this will constitute 660 MW name plate capacity.

If you install the MarineTraffic app on your iOS device and add the Van Oord installation vessel Aeolus to your fleet of favorites, you will receive an email every 2-3 days, indicating that the Aeolus has arrived again in Belfast to pick up yet another load of four monopiles to be rammed into the floor of the Irish Sea. The turbines will be installed by the Seajacks Scylla.

[source]

[wikipedia.org] – Walney Wind Farm
[walneyextension.co.uk] – Project home page
[offshorewind.biz] – Aeolus Spotted at Belfast Harbour Ahead of Walney Works

The Dudgeon Offshore Wind Farm

Turbines: 67 Siemens 6 MW machines
Power: 402 MW
Owners: Statoil: 35%, Masdar: 35%, Statkraft: 30%
Distance: 32 km offshore

[wikipedia.org] – Dudgeon Offshore Wind Farm
[a2sea.com] – A2SEA installs first turbine on Dudgeon OWF

Floating Wind Turbines

[wikipedia.org] – Floating wind turbine

Mitsubishu Hydraulic Driven 7MW Offshore Wind Turbine

Hydraulics topic starts at [0:25].

Youtube text: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries worked with Artemis Intelligent Power to build this prototype 7MW offshore wind-turbine which is now on test at Hunterston in Scotland. The video shows the rotor blades being made and the building and testing of the wind turbine’s Digital Displacement® hydraulic transmission at Yokohama.

Youtube text: Construction of the largest wind turbine in diameter in the world at 167m. The sea angel was designed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Construction was in December 2014. Working with SSE, MHI Vestas, Artemis Intelligent Power, Innovate UK, and Department for Business Innovation and Skills to complete.

The Sea Angel Turbine is 7MW output and located within 1 mile of Hunterston Nuclear Power Station in Renfrewshire, West Scotland.

[windminds.com] – Mitsubishi 7MW Sea Angel Floating Turbine
[windpowerengineering.com] – Hello SeaAngel: Hydraulic drive train could provide 7 MW offshore turbine
[beta.machinedesign.com] – Hydraulic Wind Turbines?

P.S. in this design the generator is still located in the nacelle.

Scotland Gearing Up For 50% Renewable Energy by 2030

wind-scotland
[source]

The government of Scotland aims to increase the speed with which it wants to implement new renewable energy capcity to the tune of 50% by 2030. This involves overall energy consumption, including heat and transport, so not just electricity.

[news.gov.scot] – The future of energy in Scotland
[cleantechnica.com] – Scotland Aims For 50% Renewable Energy By 2030

Track Side Solar Panels in UK?

Belgium giving the good example: railway tracks covered with solar panels.

Great-Britain is a mid-sized country with high population density. Not strange then that a study has been started to see if space near railway tracks can be used to place solar panels.

[solarlove.org] – UK Studying Track Side Solar Panels To Power Electric Trains

Read more…

UK Government Rejects UCG

algy-cluf[source] UK UCG promoter Algy Cluff is not amused

But following an independent review, which concluded the emissions from the process would be significantly higher than other sources of gas, the UK Government on Thursday ended any remaining hopes, saying it was “minded to not support the development of this technology in the UK”.

Editor: apparently the UK government is confident that their energy needs can be covered from other sources and shy away from potential negative environmental effects. But the coal will remain where it is and other UK governments could change their minds.

[gov.uk] – Underground Coal Gasification – Evidence Statement of Global Warming Potential
[sciencedirect.com] – The analysis of the underground coal gasification in experimental equipment
[telegraph.co.uk] – Government kills off plans to burn coal under the seabed
[fraw.org.uk] – The hell-fires of UCG threaten Tyneside and the North Sea
[scottishconservatives.com] – Now SNP bans underground coal gasification
[foei.org] – Fuelling the fire
[corporatewatch.org] – Underground Coal Gasification scrapped in the UK

Underground Coal Gasification

When we started this blog in 2012, we were convinced that the very near future would be as predicted by ASPO-2000, Colin Campbell and Richard Heinberg, namely that the world was already at or even passed peak oil and a rapid decrease in available oil would shake the foundations of industrial society.

Meanwhile we’re living in 2017 and nothing of the sort has materialized. Oil price is currently at $54 and the concept of peak oil has gone out of fashion. The direct reason for this (for laymen) unexpected development is the rise of the fracking industry. There is however reason to assume that there is far more fossil fuel in the earth’s crust than previously anticipated:

[deepresource] – Fracking is for Amateurs (Apr 2015)

When US president elect Trump claims that there is for centuries worth of coal reserves, he is probably not exaggerating. The North Sea between Britain and Holland is probably one of the, if not the most explored areas in the world. While hunting for oil, explorers studying the core samples resulting from drilling activities, they noticed the presence of vast quantities of coal. Think trillions of tons of coal, a multiple of what humanity has burned so far in its entire history. Obviously it is not possible to mine these reserves in the conventional way, but meanwhile technology has advanced to the tune that it is no longer necessary to operate in this way.

In short: it is possible to drill holes and burn the coal at the location where it resides, by injecting oxygen and water and retrieving CH4, H2, CO and CO2.

[wikipedia.org] – Underground coal gasification

The conclusion is that there is more than enough fossil fuel around to build the renewable energy base.

There is some Soviet experience with UCG, beginning in the thirties.

[lincenergy.com]
Yerostigaz, located in Angren, Uzbekistan, is the only commercial UCG operation in the world. Operational since 1961, Yerostigaz produces UCG synthesis gas to be used for power generation… 1 million m3/day and will continue to do so for the next 50 years.

[scielo.org.co] – Technological Innovations on Underground Coal Gasification and CO2 SEQUESTRATION 
The advantages of this technique are related to its high efficiency, because it makes possible to triple or quadrupling the exploitable coal reserves and so offsetting the decline in reserves of other mineral fuels such as oil and gas. This is particularly suitable for low quality coals, such as lignite and bituminous coal, which produce less heat in combustion due to its high ash content and are they more polluting in conventional plants.

[ualberta.ca] – The Push to Coal Gasification in Alberta
This paper will look specifically at coal gasification as this has the largest impact on Canada and Alberta, specifically in developing a higher value and more environmentally acceptable usage of coal when compared to straight combustion. Modern coal gasification also introduces a cost-effective substitute to natural gas in the form of syngas and hydrogen that can replace natural gas usage for larger natural gas users (such as the oil sands) allowing the natural gas to be freed up for other commercial markets. Finally, the hydro-gasification process produces a relatively pure and easily captured CO2 stream that normal coal combustion does not allow (or is highly uneconomical). In Alberta this carbon dioxide stream is an additional product line for the coal gasifier, who can sell the product to the oil industry for enhanced oil recovery.

[cornerstonemag.net] – Underground Coal Gasification: An Overview of an Emerging Coal Conversion Technology

[lincenergy.com] – carousel with pictures from the thirties

Read more…

Charging While Driving

UK-charging

[mashable.com] – The UK is testing out roads that charge electric cars as they go

Wind Towers Scotland Production Process

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BedZED/UK Eco-Village

BedZED_2007

82 homes, zero carbon emission. Built in 2000-2002. Cars are discouraged, good rail and bus links available. All energy needed is generated on site. Triple glazing. Rain water is reused. Building materials transported over 35 miles max. Waste is recycled.

[wikipedia.org] – Beddington Zero Energy Development (BedZED)
[zedfactory.com] – BedZED
[bioregional.com] – BedZED

Street_in_BedZED

[Google maps]

Read more…

Fracking is for Amateurs

coal_gassification

Rough estimates of the potential of fracking, as practiced in North-America, are that it can postpone the end of the oil age with perhaps a decade or so.

However, there never has been any doubt that the remaining quantity of fossil fuel, stored in the earth’s crust, is many times larger than the cumulative amount of fossil fuel consumed so far in the entire history. The problem has always been: can we access that fuel in an economic way and the concept of EROEI is the leading indicator to decide if a fuel can be exploited economically. The decisive factor is technology, a very dynamic factor. There are for instance enormous quantities of frozen methane lying around on the ocean floor and now it is beginning to dawn that unbelievable large quantities of coal are waiting to be exploited beneath the North-Sea floor, that could be harvested in gas form:

Scientists have discovered vast deposits of coal lying under the North Sea, which could provide enough energy to power Britain for centuries.
Experts believe there is between 3 and 23 trillion tonnes of coal buried in the seabed starting from the northeast coast and stretching far out under the sea.
Data from seismic tests and boreholes shows that the seabed holds up to 20 layers of coal – much of which could be reached with the technology already used to extract oil and gas.

In comparison: so far the world extracted ‘merely’ 0.135 trillion ton of oil, a small fraction of the coal reserves located beneath the North-Sea. In other words: peak conventional oil may have happened in 2005, but in hindsight it was a completely irrelevant event.

If it is wise to exploit these vast reserves is a different matter altogether. But one thing is certain: the original idea we had when we started this blog over three years ago, namely that fossil fuel could become scarce on relatively short notice, that idea needs to be abandoned. Limiting factors will more likely be: finance, geopolitics, war, environment, climate change; not lack of combustible material. It is likely that there is far more fossil fuel around than the atmosphere can ever handle.

Obviously we do not advocate the grand-scale exploitation of coal underneath the North-Sea, although it is nice to know that we in Europe are perhaps not as dependent on the Middle-East for the duration of the transition. What we do advocate is the exploitation of a limited amount to enable the renewable energy transition to occur, meaning a large wind-turbine next to every village and solar panels on every available roof, combined with large scale hydro-storage in mountain areas. The EU should stick to its original goal of 100% renewable energy by 2050. Again: there is no serious energy problem in the long term. There is an awareness problem.

[dailymail.co.uk] – Vast deposits totalling up to 23 trillion tonnes found under the North Sea
[wikipedia.org] – Coal gasification
[theecologist.org] – ‘Underground coal gasification’ hell-fires threaten Tyneside and the North Sea
[thegwpf.com] – Coal is the new black gold under the North Sea
[resilience.org] – 3000 Billion tons of coals off Norway’s coastline
[thejournal.co.uk] – Drilling date set for North Sea’s vast coal reserves
[walesonline.co.uk] – An estimated trillion tonnes of coal found off Wales’ coast
[heraldscotland.com] – North Sea is the place to be in crude price slump declares entrepreneur

gasification_world_624map[source] – North Sea is the place to be in crude price slump declares entrepreneur

Read more…

Floating Solar Panels

floating-solar-pv
Floating solar panels, an interesting solution for overcrowded places like the UK?

Since 2011, French Company Ciel & Terre has been developing large-scale floating solar solutions. Their innovative Hydrelio Floating PV system allows standard PV panels to be installed on large bodies of water such as: drinking water reservoirs, quarry lakes, irrigation canals, remediation and tailing ponds, and hydro electric dam reservoirs. This simple and affordable alternative to ground-mounted systems is particularly suitable for water-intensive industries who cannot afford to waste either land or water.

[alternative-energy-news] – Floating solar panels: a viable solution?

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