Norway is of central importance in the design of a pan-European renewable energy base. The country is sparsely populated and has mountains with large lakes, that can function as hydro storage basins for excess renewable energy from offshore wind from countries like the UK, the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. Although Norway is not a member of the EU, it does closely cooperate on many areas with Brussels, including energy.
Natural conditions for the production of HP in Norway are very favourable. Yearly precipitation in most of the country varies from 300/500 up to more than 2000 mm, and precipitation is rather evenly distributed over the year. There are large mountainous areas and mountain plateaus with high elevation and steep falls/short distances down to the lowlands/coastal areas. The high number of lakes provides ideal conditions for establishing reservoirs. They are key elements in the hydropower infrastructure as precipitation falls as snow 3-5 months during the winter season when runoff is at its lowest and electricity demand at its highest.
[regjeringen.no] – Energy and Water Resources in Norway
[springer.com] – The Master Plan for the Management of Watercourses in Norway
[brage.bibsys.no] – Hydropower in Norway
[sciencedirect.com] – Implicit Environmental Costs in Hydroelectric Development
[deepresource] – Norway Wants to Become Europe’s Battery Pack
[deepresource] – Norway Europe’s Green Battery
[deepresource] – NorNed
[deepresource] – Green Light For British-Norwegian Interconnector
[deepresource] – European Supergrid Submarine Cables – Inventory & Plans
[deepresource] – 1 kWh (=lifting a car to the top of the Eiffel Tower)
The Vjosa, situated in Albania, is Europe’s last unspoiled river. A large hydro-power dam is planned in the 270 km long river and the usual conflict between economic interests & increased wealth vs nature breaks out. Albania is already the “largest” hydro-power producer in the world in terms of share of the total electricity production palette (90% in 2011) and wants to increase this share to 100%. A Vjosa river dam could add another 400 MW. Other projects underway include Skavica, up to 350 MW and Devolli 400 MW.
Power: 6 GW
Cost: $6.4 billion
River: Blue Nile
Height: 175 meter
Width: 1800 meter
Elevation at crest: 645 meter
Dam volume: 10 million m3
Storage volume: 79×10E9 m3
Size lake: 1561 km2
Turbines: 16 x 375 MW Francis turbines
Purpose: turn Ethiopia in a “medium income country”
Contractors: Salini Costruttori (Italy) and Alstom (France)
Commission date: July 2017
Building an adequate energy storage system is one of the central challenges of the renewable energy transition. Pumped hydro storage is a very important option. Most people associate this with a dam in a valley behind which water can be pumped upwards in times of excess renewable energy available, in order for it to be released later, when the electricity is required.
But there are more options. One of them is building a large reservoir on top of mountain. Another one, attractive for the flatlanders, is building a high dike in the sea.
Elevation: 510 m (highest in Europe),
Reservoirs: 2.7 million m3 (higher) and 3.4 million m3 (lower)
Pump-generators: 2 x 325 MW
More than 2 GW, generating 5,000 GWh/year.
[source] So-called Plan Lievense, dating from 1981. With the massive Dutch multi-GW wind power plans for the North Sea, to be realized before 2023, some form of energy storage is inevitable. One of the options is building dike structure that allow for fluctuating water levels of up to 40 meter.
Design consists of a closed ring-shaped dike of ca. 6 x 10 km. Water levels will very from 32 to 40 meter under the water level of the surrounding North Sea. Lake surface area: ca. 40 km2. Storage capacity is more than 20 GWh (value 5 million euro consumer end price of 25 cent/kWh), sufficient to produce 1,500 MW during at least 12 hours to the national grid. this plan could be profitable from 9 GW wind offshore wind power, expected after 2020..
[Google Maps] – Brouwersmeer
[deepresource] – Pumped Hydro Storage
The most visible application of hydro power are dams that artificially create large volumes of water, the potential energy of which can be converted into kinetic energy of water, descending in pipes.
The German engineering company Smart Hydro Power specializes in generating electricity from flowing, rather than from falling water, eliminating the need for dams.
Iceland has a population of merely 326,000 people, living in a mostly uninhabited mountainous area of 103,000 km2. The mountain and vulcanic activity are interesting from an energy point of view: potential for hydro power and storage (larger than mountainous Italy or Spain), as well as geothermal energy (hot water), providing for 85% of the domestic energy needs. The rest comes from imported oil for transport. Iceland has quite a large hydrogen production capacity used in cars. Since 2012 Iceland is in talks with the UK about constructing a cable for transmission of electricity between the two countries. Electricity prices in Iceland and UK are 9 and 20 dollar cent/kwh resp., which offers potential for export from Iceland to the UK and the rest of Europe. Most potential for hydro power and geothermal energy has not been developed; the Icelanders are already by far the biggest energy consumers on the planet:
Translating over-all energy use (oil, gas, coal, nuclear, renewable) into kg oil equivalent/capita you get, according to the Worldbank:
So, how much potential does Iceland have to offer?
[Deutsche Welle] – Icelandic power export plans still a pipe dream
[nytimes.com] – Iceland Looks to Export Power Bubbling From Below
[economist.com] – Power under the sea
[icetradedirectory.com] – Energy in Iceland
[renewableenergyworld.com] – In Iceland, Geothermal Energy is “Use or Lose It”
[theguardian.com] – Iceland’s volcanoes may power UK
[wikipedia.org] – Icelandic hydroelectric power stations
[nea.is] – Hydro Power
Iceland’s precipitation combined with extensive highlands, has an enormous energy potential or up to 220 TWh/yr. Of the primary energy consumption in Iceland, in 2008, 20% was generated from hydropower. The total electricity production was in 2008, 12,5 TWh from hydro.
[vedur.is] – Development of a methodology for estimation of Technical Hydropower potential in Iceland using high resolution Hydrological Modeling
Calculations were performed with this new method and results presented at an industry conference in 1981 (Tómasson, 1981). The calculations showed that total hydropower potential from precipitation was 252 TWh/yr, where the greatest potential was in the south-east, part of Iceland which has extensive glacial coverage and the least potential in the northern- and western part with less precipitation and lower elevation.
Cruachan power station
As reported earlier, renewable energy is doing well in Scotland. But with the increase of that segment of energy generation, the need for storage becomes ever more prominent, considering the intermittent nature of renewable energy supply. The best remedy to date is pumped hydro storage, meaning: if you have too much supply of renewable energy, use that energy to pump water high up into a mountain reservoir and release that potential energy when energy demand is larger than the existing renewable energy system is able to supply.
With increased exploitation of renewable energy, more facilities need to become available to even out intermittent supply. Two options:
1. Connection to the European Supergrid
2. New local hydro-pumped storage facilities
Two new facilities re planned for the Great Glen area with a combined capacity of 900 MW.
It has been calculated that if Scotland wants to keep storage matters entirely in its own hands, it would need 7 GW total pumped hydro storage capacity, ten times as much as is available now.
Strong opposition from environmentalists against more mountain hydro reservoirs exists, but it remains to be seen how much of that resistance remains, once push comes to shove and an average Scot is forced to stay in bed in a dark home, thinking about how he would like to have his environmentalist best: medium or well done.
Another option would be to combine large scale pumped hydro storage with battery storage at home, where matters are developing fast, with $100/kwh a possibility in the long term. Under these circumstances, for ca. $1,000 a family could store electricity for two days or more.
Large energy storage facilities are an essential ingredient of future renewable energy systems to filter out unpredictable supply of renewable energy. Here a few videos about pumped hydro storage systems.
[wikipedia.org] – List of existing and planned pumped hydro power stations
Developed and untapped hydropower potential
[ec.europa.eu] – Assessment of the European potential for pumped hydropower energy storage
this study which focuses on two topologies:
(T1) when two reservoirs exist already with the adequate difference in elevation and which are close enough so that they can be linked by a new penstock and electrical equipment
(T2) based on one existing reservoir, when there is a suitable site close enough as to build a second reservoir.
The results show that the theoretical potential in Europe is significant under both topologies, and that the potential of topology 2 is roughly double that of topology 1. Under T1 the theoretical potential energy stored reaches 54 TWh when a maximum of 20 km between existing reservoirs is considered; of this potential approximately 11 TWh correspond to the EU and 37 TWh to candidate countries, mostly Turkey. When a shorter maximum distance between existing reservoirs is considered, e.g. 5 km, the majority of the 0.83 TWh European theoretical potential is in the EU (85%).
Under T2 the European theoretical potential reaches 123 TWh when the distance between the existing reservoir and the prospective site is up to 20 km. Unlike topology 1, in topology 2 the majority of this potential (50%) lies within the EU. For a distance between reservoirs of 5 km a theoretical potential of 15 TWh -of which 7.4 TWh within the EU- was found.
P.S. the figures mentioned need to be reconciled: 180 TWh and the other ones.
Youtube text: Osmotic Power – The energy is based on the natural phenomenon osmosis, defined as being the transport of water through a semi-permeable membrane. This is how plants can absorb moisture through their leaves — and retain it. When fresh water meets salt water, for instance where a river runs into the sea, enormous amounts of energy are released. This energy can be utilized for the generation of power through osmosis. At the osmotic power plant, fresh water and salt water are guided into separate chambers, divided by an artificial membrane. The salt molecules in the sea water pulls the freshwater through the membrane, increasing the pressure on the sea water side. The pressure equals a 120 metre water column, or a significant waterfall, and be utilized in a power generating turbine.
Statkraft prototype Tofte/Norway
A 10 kW prototype was realized in 2008. A commercial scale implementation is expected to become operational in 2015. This is expensive technology.
[wikipedia.org] – Prototype Tofte/Hurum, Norway (10 kW)
Pictures from holiday trip to Mattmark:
If renewable sources of energy are going to be deployed on a grand scale, the necessity arises to provide for a buffer that can level off intermittent supply of energy from sources like wind and solar. Consulting company Ecoprog anticipates more than 60 new pumped-storage plants with a total capacity of about 27 GW will be built in Europe by 2020, with the market particularly booming in Spain, Switzerland and Austria.
Height Guri Dam: 162m, dam reservoir: 175km, 20 turbines generating 10 GW or 70% of Venezuelas electricity needs. Needs to be increased to 12 GW. Investment: 1.3 billion $. Planned completion date: 2016.