Observing the renewable energy transition from a European perspective

Archive for the category “reserves”

Russia Poised to Dominate Global Platinum Market?


In the world of the future real tangible assets will likely be more important than paper IOY’s, certainly during the years after the coming ‘Big Reset‘ or the ‘Mother of all Defaults’ [*]. Russia is making big moves into African mining:

Russian Deputy Minister of Industry and Trade Georgy Kalamanov said live from Harare that a new $3 billion platinum complex is going “according to schedule.” With the Deputy Minister noting that Phase I of the project–which includes mines and processing facilities–is just “a first step” for Russia.

world-platinumLocation platinum deposits

RT chimes in by reporting:

According to the US Geological Survey, Russia produced 25,000 kilograms of platinum in 2014. Zimbabwe produced 11,000 kilos last year, outpacing the combined production of the US and Canada. The global leader is South Africa with 110,000 kg.

Russia controls about 30 percent of global platinum and palladium output, according to OilPrice.

In a world where words still have meaning this means that South-Africa will continue to be the global leader in platinum production, with Russia a good 2nd with 25% of the world’s output.

You can safely leave it to the Boer Republic (“Boer” is Dutch for farmer) and descendants of the Dutch to know where to find and exploit precious metals. 😉

[] – Russia Could Gain A Stranglehold On This Market
[] – Platinum

[*] – the expression ‘Mother of …’ is the main legacy, the fine Iraqi dictator Saddam of former fame, left to the world. He may be dead, but he probably drew US power with him into the grave. It is a bit like with Hitler and Britain:

londinistanLondon 2015. Hitler’s revenge.

Top Ten Gas Reserves



JODI Database

Here a pointer to an interesting source of data concerning detailed national fossil fuel production, the JODI (Joint Organizations Data Initiative) database, an alternative for EIA data.


Renewable Energy Reserves

The diagram shows the absolute reserves of gas, oil, coal and uranium, as wel as the yearly reserves of renewable energy sources.


DoE Allocates $120M To Avert Critical Materials Shortage

The US Department of Energy allocated $120 million to make sure near-term supply of five rare earth metals, dysprosium, terbium, europium, neodymium and yttrium, will be ensured. These materials are essential components of advanced wind turbines, solar cells as well as electric vehicles and energy efficient lighting. For this purpose a new Energy Innovation Hub is launched, lead by the Ames Laboratory in Iowa, called the Critical Materials Institute and modelled after the successful Bioenergy Research Centers, founded under president Bush. DoE: “The new Hub will focus on technologies that will enable us to make better use of the materials we have access to as well as eliminate the need for materials that are subject to supply disruptions“.

[wikipedia] – rare earth elements

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Oil Will Decline Shortly After 2015

Olivier Rech worked for the International Energy Agency from 2006 to 2009. The IEA is often criticized for too optimistic forecasts concerning oil production levels. Now that Rech no longer works for that organization his forecasts have become much more pessimistic. He expects stronger tensions as of 2013, and an inevitable overall decline of oil production “somewhere between 2015 and 2020”. Summary of his views: non-OPEC 40 mbd (58% production, with 23% reserves), OPEC (42%, 77%). Annual decline non-OPEC 1-2 mbd. Existing production declines 5%/year. OPEC situation less clear. New offshore projects near Brazil, Ghana and Guyana. Gulf of Mexico far from depleted. Arctic uncertain, will take another decade for production from that region. Expects global peak production to remain below 95 mbd for conventional and unconventional oil combined. Oil production on a plateau of 82 mbd since 2005. Including biofuels and coal-to-liquid, that’s 88 mbd for all liquid fuels. According to Rech this will be about the maximum. Expects tensions between 2013-2015 and decline to start between 2015-2020, but it will not be rapid.


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How Much Fuel Is Left?

Liquid fuel reserves from all sources according to the IEA.
IEA thinks the world will have 100 million barrel of fossil fuel per day by 2035.

Idem but corrected for energy content per volume as well as net energy.
After correction 70 million barrel per day remain in 2035.

After compensation for other factors, 40 million barrels per day remain in 2035, according to Antonio Turiel.

[] – Original article in Spanish
[] – Summary in Italian
[] – Translation by Ugo Bardi

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Global Natural Gas Reserves

The global natural gas market, conventional and shale, from an Indian perspective. Due to developments in the US, namely recent US unconventional oil and gas finds as well as a government reaching concensus about dramatically improved fuel efficiency of cars, fuel hope that India could benefit from US gas exports as well as reduced US demand for oil from the Middle East, leaving more for India, hopefully at lower prices. Whatever may be true of this, we were at least as interested in the map depicting the global natural gas reserves.


Global Gas Reserves


[Natural gas]
[List of countries by natural gas proven reserves]
[List of countries by natural gas production]
[List of natural gas fields]

How Much Water Is There On Earth?

Picture from the US Geological Survey (USGS). Water might cover 70% of the planets surface, but in reality oceans are shallow on a global scale. Of that water (1386 million km3 in total or a sphere with a radius of 693 km, see picture) only a small fraction of 0.77% (sphere with radius of 137 km, see picture) is usable fresh water (ground water, lakes, rivers, etc.). An additional 1.74% is stored as glaciers, ice caps and permanent snow, but is not accessible and usable.


Peak Phosphorus

Arno Rosemarin from the Stockholm Environment Institute explains the many challenges of phosphate rock, the main source of phosphorus used in fertilizers, running out.


Michael Ruppert & Jerome Corsi – The Peak Oil Debate

Youtube text:Michael Ruppert & Jerome Corsi – The Peak Oil Debate 2006
Host: George Noory — Coast To Coast AM

A Fast Blast poll (01/12/2006, after this show) found 62% siding with Corsi and 38% with Ruppert. Were do you side today in 2011?

Author Jerome Corsi and researcher Michael Rupper debated whether oil is a renewable source produced deep inside the Earth, or a finite resource, which will become scarcer within our lifetime.

Corsi’s position: Oil is not “fossil fuel” but rather an “abiotic” substance that is naturally replenished on a constant basis. The so-called scarcity is a tact taken by the oil companies in order to increase their profits. Various surveys going back to the early 1900’s have all claimed that we were going to run out of oil, but we now have a greater supply than we ever had. Oil companies should lose their tax incentives if they don’t increase their reserves. 

Ruppert’s position: The world is behaving as if the Peak Oil theory were true, and our supplies will begin to dwindle from the amount they are now at. The notion of replenishing abiotic oil is not supported in scientific literature. Further, specific abiotic sites such as Dneiper-Donets basin and the Eugene Island Lot have turned out to be a bust or in decline in terms of supplying oil. People should adjust their lives as if Peak Oil is indeed true, and prepare and plan ahead for that eventuality.

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The Bakken Formation

People who reject the peak-oil theory, like to point at the potential for extracting large amounts of fossil fuels by means of new technologies, first and foremost hydraulic fracturing (fracking). Many point at the Bakken Formation on the US-Canadian border as one of the most promising territories. This post presents arguments pro and con.


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Dr. Fatih Birol of the IEA

Dr. Fatih Birol on World Energy Outlook post Copenhagen.

[When will the oil run out?]

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Who Is Who In The World Of Energy?

Earlier we posted a “Who is who in peak-oil“. Here we want to make a broader list of people prominent in the field of energy matters and who have an outspoken opinion about the future of energy, peakers and non-peakers alike and who have expressed their opinion in public. In alphabetical order. This post will be updated regularly.

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Oil & Gas Giants

[red=gas green=oil]
The world’s 932 giant oil and gas fields are considered those with 500 million barrels (79,000,000 m3) of ultimately recoverable oil or gas equivalent. Geoscientists believe these giants account for 40 percent of the world’s petroleum reserves. They are clustered in 27 regions of the world, with the largest clusters in the Persian Gulf and Western Siberian Basin.


Saudi-Arabian Oilfields

The article discusses the the world’s largest offshore field Safaniya.
Map “Saudi oil production, by field, in 1994” from Matt Simmons, “Twilight in the Desert”.


BP 2012 Global Energy Data

[BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2012]

[Excel spreadsheet with a wealth of data]

[Outlook for the coming 20 years]

BP: Venezuela now holds largest oil reserves

Venezuela surpassed Saudi Arabia to become the world’s largest holder of proven oil reserves. The South American country’s deposits were at 296.5 billion barrels at the end of last year, data from BP Plc (BP/) show. Saudi Arabia held 265.4 billion barrels, BP said yesterday in its annual Statistical Review of World Energy. The 2010 estimate for Venezuela increased from 211.2 billion in the previous report. Chavez wants to more than double the country’s oil- production capacity to 6 million barrels a day by 2019. Venezuela now holds 18 percent of the world’s reserves, Saudi-Arabia 16%, Canada 11% and Russia 5%, according to BP data.


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Dennis Meadows

Dennis Meadows in 1972 was a prominent member of the Club of Rome. On March 1, 2012 a symposium celebrated 40 years of ‘Limits to Growth‘, one of the most influential environmental studies of the 20th century. Meadows no longer believes in sustainable development, it is too late for that. Meadows currently holds that collapse is now all but inevitable, but that its actual form will be too complex for any model to predict. “Collapse will not be driven by a single, identifiable cause simultaneously acting in all countries,” he observes. “It will come through a self-reinforcing complex of issues”—including climate change, resource constraints and socioeconomic inequality… As scarcities mount and inequality increases, revolutions and socioeconomic movements like the Arab Spring or Occupy Wall Street will become more widespread—as will their repression. [source].

[] – “There is nothing we can do” – Meadows

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