According to the manufacturer Siemens has their SWT-3.0-113 wind turbine an energy payback time of 4.5 months. With a (conservative) minimum life span of 20 years, that would mean an EROI of 240/4.5 = 53.
[siemens.com] – Press release
Today Chile gets 45% of its electricity from renewable sources and intends to increase this to 90% by 2050… or earlier.
[wikipedia.org] – Renewable energy in Chile
[nytimes.com] – Chile’s Energy Transformation Powered by Wind, Sun and Volcanoes
[independent.co.uk] – “Chile’s electricity should be 100% renewable by 2040”
[collective-evolution.com] – The ‘Uber of Recycling’ Igniting Green Revolution in Chile
Dr. Oliver Born: this presentation is mainly about using waste heat steam for hydrogen production. With steam you can typically achieve 20% higher efficiency with steam than with low temperature water.
[wikipedia.org] – High-temperature electrolysis
During electrolysis, the amount of electrical energy that must be added equals the change in Gibbs free energy of the reaction plus the losses in the system. The losses can (theoretically) be arbitrarily close to zero, so the maximum thermodynamic efficiency of any electrochemical process equals 100%. In practice, the efficiency is given by electrical work achieved divided by the Gibbs free energy change of the reaction.
In most cases, such as room temperature water electrolysis, the electric input is larger than the enthalpy change of the reaction, so some energy is released as waste heat. In the case of electrolysis of steam into hydrogen and oxygen at high temperature, the opposite is true. Heat is absorbed from the surroundings, and the heating value of the produced hydrogen is higher than the electric input. In this case the efficiency relative to electric energy input can be said to be greater than 100%.
[sunfire.de] – Sunfire company site
[sunfire.de] – Low cost hydrogen production
Sunfire achieves 82% electrolysis efficiency in their hydrogen generator modules.
Input: saturated steam 40 kg/h @ 150°C and pressure: 3 bar(g)
British contribution: scaling up electrolysis to 100 MW
Technology has matured enough to produce effective wind turbines. The next technological challenge is how to store intermittent electricity generated by these wind turbines. The most promising technology is power-to-gas: use electricity from wind to split water in H2 and O2 molecules and burn (reunited) them at a later point in time.
This project produces 163 bar hydrogen, without the need of an external compressor. The resulting hydrogen can be directly fed into the existing natural gas network.
Siemens-Gamesa will build a thermal energy storage of 1000 tonnes of rock fill, that at 600 degrees Celsius will provide 30 MWh electricity. This is the equivalent of the batteries of 50 e-vehicles.
[siemensgamesa.com] – Start of construction in Hamburg-Altenwerder: Siemens Gamesa to install FES heat-storage for wind energy
An agency of the Dutch ministry of economic affairs has issued a tender for the investigation of the soil in the projected areas of a large wind farm, “Hollandse Kust” (Dutch Coast),
[offshorewind.biz] – RVO.nl Issues Hollandse Kust (noord) Geotechnical Soil Investigations Tender
The largest offshore wind order of 2017: the three wind farms, Kriegers Flak in the Baltic Sea and Vesterhav Syd and Nord in the North Sea, have a total investment value of close to EUR 1.7 billion (SEK 16.5 billion).
After TenneT TSO B.V. (Netherlands), Energinet (Denmark), TenneT TSO GmbH (Germany) and Gasunie (Netherlands), it is now the Port Authority of Rotterdam that is backing plans to build one or more wind power hub islands in the middle of the North Sea, starting from 2025. This is significant as the Port Authority has broad experience in acquiring new land from the sea. These hubs could play an important role in realizing the intended 70 GW to 150 GW offshore wind power in the North Sea by 2040. Adhering to the Paris Accords, 180 GW needs to be installed in the North Sea by 2045. Every energy island should collect 10-30 GW and transport the energy via connectors to the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Norway and Britain.
The second use of these socalled Power Link Islands is the production of hydrogen via power-to-gas conversion installations and brought onshore via existing pipeline infrastructure. And thirdly, large converterstations in the middle of the sea would no longer be necessary. And finally, these islands could function as maintenance hubs for nearby wind parks.
[tennet.eu] – Havenbedrijf Rotterdam vijfde partner in North Sea Wind Power Hub-consortium
[tennet.eu] – TenneT presenteert ideeën voor schaalvergroting van windenergie op Nederlandse Noordzee
[northseawindpowerhub.eu] – North Sea Wind Power Hub
German language video.
Hans-Josef Fell is one of the most important advocats of renewable energy in Germany. He was the man behind “feed-in tariffs”, introduced in Germany in 2000 and and set an example for the rest of the world.
Fell has bad news: the energy transition in Germany is stalling. Were in 2000, 7 GW of new capacity was installed, in the last few years it has fallen back to 1.5 GW. Big oil, coal and lignite producers are successful in slowing down the transition.
[wikipedia.org] – Hans-Josef Fell
Solliance from Eindhoven, The Netherlands, wants to mover away from standard solar panels towards thin film solar and apply those to surfaces like cars, windows, curved building surfaces or even glasshouses:
They are close to printing cheap roles of hundreds of meters of solar thin film cells, with a conversion efficiency of 12.2-13.5 % on the basis of perovskites.
[hightechcampus.com] – Solliance dichterbij drukmachine voor zonnecellen op rol
In deze podcast praat interviewer Ingelou Stol met:
– Gerardo Daalderop van chipfabrikant NXP
– Merien ten Houten van start-up Amber
– Maurice Kwakkernaat van TNO
[hightechcampus.com] – High Tech Podcast #1 – Toekomst zelfrijdende auto
Trolleybuses in Arnhem, the Netherlands. Could this be an intermediate solution for trucks as well? How about catenaries for highways only? The result would be that trucks only needs small batteries, “for the last miles”. During long distances travel the truck’s batteries could recharge via the catenary as well.
An anonymous energy blogger named “Scottish Scientist” has posted a proposal for a giant pumped hydro storage facility in the Scottish Highlands with the potential to service most of Europe.
The numbers are massive:
Height dam: 300 meter
Width dam: 2,000 meter
Max. water elevation: 650 meter
Storage volume: 4.4 billion m3
Lake surface area: 40 km2
Energy content: 6,800 GWh or 283 GW days
The new storage facility would have “enough capacity to balance and back-up the intermittent renewable energy generators such as wind and solar power now in use for the whole of Europe!”
If one “limits” the area to a circle with a radius of 3,000 km and applies 800 kW transmission lines, a two-way storage efficiency of 79% could be achieved. However, if limited to the North Sea area, one-way losses could be reduced to 7%.
The proposed design would includ a “stepped-canal solution”, see picture above. The biggest cost would be building a large canal of 170 meter width, which would require to move more earth than in the Panama Canal project to allow for discharging water speeds of 10-11 m/s.
[scottishscientist] – World’s biggest-ever pumped-storage hydro-scheme, for Scotland?
[Google Maps] – Strathdearn
[savestrathdearn.com] – Save Strathdearn Valley (local resistance to be expected)
[euanmearns.com] – The Loch Ness Monster of Energy Storage