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Archive for the category “Germany”

Siemens SILYZER PEM Water Electrolysis Systems

One of the largest advantages to PEM electrolysis is its ability to operate at high current densities. This can result in reduced operational costs, especially for systems coupled with very dynamic energy sources such as wind and solar, where sudden spikes in energy input would otherwise result in uncaptured energy. The polymer electrolyte allows the PEM electrolyzer to operate with a very thin membrane (~100-200 μm) while still allowing high pressures, resulting in low ohmic losses, primarily caused by the conduction of protons across the membrane (0.1 S/cm) and a compressed hydrogen output.

The polymer electrolyte membrane, due to its solid structure, exhibits a low gas crossover rate resulting in very high product gas purity. Maintaining a high gas purity is important for storage safety and for the direct usage in a fuel cell. The safety limits for H2 in O2 are at standard conditions 4 mol-% H2 in O2

[wikipedia.org] – PEM Electrolysis
[siemens.com] – Hydrogen Solutions
[siemens.com] – Siemens Silyzer 300 (English/Deutsch)
[drd.wa.gov.au] – Integrating Renewable Energy and Hydrogen (pres. slides)

Read more…

Iron Rhine Revitalized?

For obvious reasons, the Belgians have been pushing hardest for a revitalization of the IJzeren Rijn (Iron Rhine) railway between the Antwerp Harbor and German Ruhr-area industrial heartland. The Germans had a prudent approach, but the Dutch were least enthusiastic in cooperating with a project that would create an outright competitor with their own existing railway-lines between Rotterdam and Germany. Now the Germans are changing attitude and offer to take the lead in revitalizing the old railway-line. And there is a reason why even the Netherlands should reconsider its position. And that reason is the zinc-plant in Budel-Schoot and its potential to become a renewable energy fuel source, see previous post.

[deepresource] – Nyrstar – The Next Royal Dutch Shell?

A new proposal for revitalization of the Iron Rhine can be best accomplished using the 3RX-tracé, the ‘Rhein-Ruhr-Rail Connection’ (3RX), from Antwerp, via Mol and Hamont to Roermond and Venlo and finally to Viersen. It would be just as good as revitalizing the historic Iron Rhine, but at half the cost.

[nnieuws.be] – IJzeren Rijn : ‘Duitsland bereid overleg over 3RX-tracé te trekken’
[atv.be] – Opnieuw beweging in het dossier van de ‘IJzeren Rijn’
[mobielvlaanderen.be] – 3RX Feasibility study alternative Rhein – Ruhr Rail Connection (dec 2017)
[n-va.be] – Ook Duitsland nu gewonnen voor 3RX-tracé (IJzeren Rijn)
[wikipedia.org] – Iron Rhine
[wikipedia.org] – Zinkfabriek (Budel)
[statista.com] – The largest zinc smelters worldwide in 2017
Korea Zinc – 1,183
Nyrstar – 1,019 (Budel 350)
(metric kiloton)

[gemeenteraad.weert.nl] – IJzeren Rijn: resultaten 3RX-studie (jan 2018)

5 Energiespeicher für die Zukunft der Energiewende

EU Helmeth Project – Power-to-Methane (75% Efficiency)

Within the EU Project HELMETH, Efficiency of Methane Gas Production from Renewable Electricity Increased to more than 75 Percent due to Thermal Linking of Chemical Processes. The natural gas network may serve as a buffer for weather-dependent electricity from the wind and sun. This requires economically efficient processes to use electricity for the production of chemical energy carriers. The EU project HELMETH coordinated by KIT has now made an important step. It has demonstrated that high-temperature electrolysis and methanation can be combined in a power-to-gas process with an efficiency of more than 75 percent.

[helmeth.eu] – Project site
[helmeth.eu] – Summary goals (pdf 3p)

Sunfire group photo

One of the participants in the Helmeth project is the German company Sunfire, specialized in hydrogen production via high-temperature electrolysis of water. In the diagram above they do the conversion from O2 and electricity in and H2 out.

[source] Sunfire’s key technology is the PowerCore — a stack of high-temperature solid oxide cells (SOCs). The PowerCore can be used both as an electrolyser to convert electrical energy into chemical energy, and as a fuel cell to convert various liquid and gaseous fuels based on hydrocarbons (natural gas, LPG) into electricity and heat.

[wikipedia.org] – Solid oxide electrolyser cell
[sciencedirect.com] – High temperature water electrolysis in solid oxide cells
[fz-juelich.de] – Solid Oxide Fuel and Electrolysis Cells

Connecting Remote Renewable Power Generation to the Market

Siemens video highlights HVDC technology as the effective solution to transmitting renewable power over long distances.

[wikipedia.org] – High-voltage direct current
[power-technology.com] – The world’s longest power transmission lines (2014)
[wikipedia.org] – List of HVDC projects

Name Country Length (km) Voltage (kV) Year Power (GW)
Rio Madeira Brazil 2385 600 2012 7.1
Jinping-Sunan China 2090 800 2012 7.2
Xiangjiaba-Shanghai China 1980 800 2010 7.2
Inga-Kolwezi Congo 1700 500 2009 0.5
Talcher-kolar India 1450 500 2003 2.5

Affordable E-Vehicle – e.GO Delivery Q2-2019

Planning: 100,000 vehicles/year as of 2022
Range: 75-114 miles
Speed: 72-94 mph
Price: $18-22.5k

[cleantechnica.com] – e.GO Plans To Boldly Go Where No EV Startup Has Gone Before

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End of Coal Mining in Germany

After 200 years, old school coal mining comes to end in Germany.

[spiegel.de] – “Man hat gedacht, man könnte die Natur beherrschen”

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Volkswagen ID Market Entry November 2019

[cleantechnica.com] – Volkswagen Releases A Few Specs About Its Upcoming ID Sedan

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World’s First Hydrogen Train Operational in Germany

[cleantechnica.com] – Hydrogen Is Competing With Batteries & Overhead Lines For Rail Energy

Germany Secures Access to Bolivian Lithium Reserves

[source]

Cooperation announced between German company ACISA and Bolivian state company YLB, that will hold 51% of the consortium.
Annual production target as of 2022: 30.000-40.000 Tons LiOH, sufficient for hundreds of thousands of e-vehicles.
Investment volume: 300-400 million euro.

[spiegel.de] – Deutschland sichert sich Lithium-Vorkommen

The World’s First Major Renewable Energy Economy

Germany is on course to become the first major renewable energy economy. English-spoken documentary from Eastern Germany.

Jardelund – Largest Battery in Europe

Location: Jardelund, near Flensburg
Date: May 2018
Techology: Lithium-Ion
Capacity: 48 MW / 50 MWh
Purpose: reducing fossil fuel as well as store excess local wind energy
Participants: Eneco and Mitsubishi
Cost: 30 Mio. Euro

Offshore Wind Capacity Factors

[source]

The general rule is: the bigger and the newer the offshore wind turbines, the larger the capacity factor becomes and hence the lower the per kWh price.

[energynumbers.info] – Danish data
[energynumbers.info] – German data
[energynumbers.info] – UK data
[energynumbers.info] – Belgian data

The champion: Dudgeon (last 12 months) ==> *** 65.3% ***

Dudgeon: 67 Siemens 6 MW turbines, 32 km offshore Norfolk, operational since October 2017, owners Statoil, Masdar, Statkraft, water depth 18-25 m, rotor axis 110 m, rotor diameter 154 m, nameplate capacity factor 48%

[4coffshore.com] – Dudgeon UK offshore wind farm 402 MW
[wikipedia.org] – Dudgeon Offshore Wind Farm
[wikipedia.org] – Capacity factor

[ge.com] – Haliade-X Offshore Wind Turbine Platform

The Haliade-X 12 MW also features a 63% capacity factor*—five to seven points above industry standard. Each incremental point in capacity factor represents around $7 million in revenue for our customers over the life of a windfarm.

Nord Stream 2

With 1,222 km the longest sub-sea pipeline in the world. The US are against building Nord Stream 2, but 66% of the German population wants to see the pipeline build. Construction of Nord Stream 2 began in May 2018. The project is expected to be completed by the end of 2019.

Nord Stream I = 55 billion m3/year
Nord Stream II = 55 billion m3/year

That’s an amount of energy of 110 billion m3 gas = 1100 billion kWh or 1100 billion / 0.5 billion Europeans = 2200 kWh per European per year.

Rationale: supply security, read become independent from unreliable overland intermediaries like the Ukraine.

[wikipedia.org] – Nord Stream
[dw.com] – War and fuel: Angela Merkel’s headaches in Russia talks
[thelocal.de] – Construction begins on gas pipeline connecting Germany to Russia

German AfD populists pressing to get the pipeline built, explicitly calling to ignore US demands

e.GO Life, City E-Vehicle for 12k Euro

New German e-vehicle grass-roots development. Price 15,900 euro minus 4,000 euro subsidy. Four-seater.

Motor: 20-40-60 kW
Range (city): 104-124-158 km
Range (NEFZ): 121-142-184 km
Battery: 14,9-17,9-23,9 kWh
Consumption: 10 km/kWh [*]
Weight: 880 kg
Production volume: 10,000/year
Production start: end 2018

[wikipedia.de] – e.GO Life
[spiegel.de] – Günther gegen Goliath
[cleanelectric.de] – Interview mit Prof. Dr. Schuh/CEO von e.GO

[*] Average commuting distance Holland is 34 km. Two standard solar panels with mid-summer irradiation would suffice to bridge this distance. Or 90 euro cent electricity per commuter trip against Dutch grid electricity prices, much cheaper than petrol.

Read more…

Airborn Solar Panels


“Liftoff, we have a liftoff!”. Europe, one of those territories eagerly absorbing photo-voltaic energy generation, has a little bit of a space problem, being one of the most densely-populated areas in the world. A field covered with solar panels unfortunately can’t be used for agriculture. Or can it? The Fraunhofer Institute has found out that it is very well possible to use land for both agriculture and energy generation by stacking both functionalities.

Upshot agricultural yield: corn slightly negative, but grass and shadow-loving potatoes make no difference.

Influence partly shadowing on different crops

[wikipedia.com] – Agrivoltaic
[ise.fraunhofer.de] – Agrophotovoltaics Goes Global: from Chile to Vietnam
[biomlandconf.files.wordpress.com] – 20 slides Fraunhofer Institute
[cleantechnica.com] – Fraunhofer Experiments In Chile And Vietnam Prove Value Of Agrophotovoltaic Farming
[cleantechnica.com] – Combining Solar Panels With Agriculture Makes Land More Productive

Enyway – kWh Flea Market

Enyway is a new market for locally produced electricity and spin-off of a large renewable energy producer Lichtblick (“glimmer of hope”), a sort of AirBnB for electricity. Enyway is not a producer but a market place, a mediator. If you have a spare roof or unused piece of land, you can install solar panels and directly sell you electricity to others via the Enyway portal. This development could encourage private investment in renewable energy. The key-success factor could be the feed-in tariff system, that could be abolished soon, now that the energy transition is in full swing. Local producers could use this to sell their renewable energy to buyers, who prefer renewable energy over fossil-generated kWh’s. The real upshot is that new investment opportunities open up for private persons. increasing the speed of the energy transition.

[enyway.com] – Company portal
[spiegel.de] – Diese Mühle erzeugt 100.000 Kilowattstunden Strom
[de.wikipedia.org] – Lichtblick (Unternehmen)

The State of Solar

[worldatlas.com] – Countries That Use The Most Solar Power
[energy-charts.de] – Electricity-production in Germany

There is Still Potential in Thermal Solar

[ingenieur.de] – Solarthermie: Effizienter durch neue Techniken

Sono Sion Solar Car

German solar car. Price 16,000 euro. Range 250 km. On a sunny day the owner gets 30 km “for free” from the sun. Did you hear that, Australians? Californians? 35 kWh battery needs to be rented additionally. Deliveries starting by the end of 2019. The producer hopes to sell 10,000 cars per year.

[sonomotors.com] – Official site
[wikipedia.org] – Sion (electric car)
[groen7.nl] – Sono Sion moet zonnewagen voor alledag zijn

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