DeepResource

Observing the world of renewable energy and sustainable living

Archive for the month “November, 2018”

Japan Could Mine Methane-Hydrates as of 2030

We stopped worrying about “peak oil” a long time ago. Instead we worry that there is too much fossil fuel left and that the world doesn’t move to renewables fast enough.

[bbc.com] – Why ‘flammable ice’ could be the future of energy
[deepresource] – The Sudden Death of Peak Oil – 4.5 Trillion Barrels of Oil Left

H2Fuel – Hydrogen Powder NaBH4

Dutch language videoGerard Lugtigheid demonstrates his experimental setup with NaBH4, pure water and acid and produced H2 that pushes away the water in the tube.

Dutch inventor Gerard Lugtigheid is proposing a novel way of storing hydrogen in a sodium boron compound (NaBH4), which comes as a powder. So far the NaBH4 cycle came with a round-trip efficiency of 50% (DOE). Lugtigheid claims to have found a method of increasing that number to almost 100% and to have patents in America and Asia. Key is using very pure water. Storage of the powder is trivial.

[h2-fuel.nl] – Company site
[deingenieur.nl] – New Experiment Makes Hydrogen Usable in Cars
[tudelft.nl] – Hydrogen as the key to a sustainable shipping sector
[betterworldsolutions.eu] – Hydrogen can be stored as a powder
[wikipedia.org] – Sodium borohydride
[wikipedia.org] – Direct borohydride fuel cell
[opwegmetwaterstof.nl] – Tanken we straks H2Fuel?
[deingenieur.nl] – Test met tankbare waterstof
[gcep.stanford.edu] – Hydrogen Storage via Sodium Borohydride (2003)

[energiekaart.net] – Is dit de heilige graal? Waterstof in poedervorm
Dutch #1 hydrogen guru prof. Ad van Wijk (who has a horse in this race) doesn’t denounce this technology, but sees some challenges ahead.

Dutch language video

Dutch language video

NaBH4

Jardelund – Largest Battery in Europe

Location: Jardelund, near Flensburg
Date: May 2018
Techology: Lithium-Ion
Capacity: 48 MW / 50 MWh
Purpose: reducing fossil fuel as well as store excess local wind energy
Participants: Eneco and Mitsubishi
Cost: 30 Mio. Euro

Overview Energy Storage Technologies

[source]

[wikipedia.org] – Energy storage
[irena.org] – Electricity Storage and Renewables
[setis.ec.europa.eu] – Power storage
[setis.ec.europa.eu] – Europe to experience pumped storage boom
[sandia.gov]

[maxwell.com] – An Overview Of 6 Energy Storage Methods

[ingenieur.de] – Technologien des Energiespeicherns– ein Überblick

[deingenieur.nl] – Wat is grootschalige opslag en waarom hebben we het nodig?
[vereniging-bwt.nl] – Overzicht van opslagtechnieken voor energie

Overview Battery Technology

[wikipedia.org] – Electric battery
[wikipedia.org] – List of battery types
[wikipedia.org] – Rechargeable battery
[wikipedia.org] – Comparison of commercial battery types
[wikipedia.org] – History of the battery

[wired.com] – Batteries Still Suck But They Are Working On It.
[pocket-lint.com] – Future batteries, coming soon
[forbes.com] – A Battery That Could Change The World
[electrochem.org] – The Future of Batteries
[ft.com] – Beyond lithium — the search for a better battery

[speichermonitoring.de] – Batterietechnologien

Iron Flow Battery

Battery based on iron and salt water, virtually without negative environmental side-effects.

[essinc.com] – ESS Company site
[wikipedia.org] – Flow Battery
[greentechmedia.com] – EFE breakthrough in Iron Flow Tech (150 kW, $300/kWh)
[greentechmedia.com] – UniEnergy Vanadium Flow Battery
[greentechmedia.com] – Imergy Recycled Vanadium for Flow Batteries
[greentechmedia.com] – CellCube Vanadium Flow Battery
[greentechmedia.com] – EnerVault Iron-Chromium Flow Battery
[greentechmedia.com] – Primus Power Zinc-Bromide Flow Battery

Donald Sadoway on Liquid Metal Batteries

Lithium-ion batteries are short-lived, which is fine for phones but not for grid applications. Liquid metal batteries were born from the practice of electrochemical aluminium smelting (electricity in, aluminium from oxide out), but operating in reverse. Electrons come from the lighter metal on top, where the corresponding ions are travelling downwards through the electrolyte in order to recombine with the electrons at the boundary of the heavier liquid metal at the bottom. For the rest, no mixing takes places and the three layers remain separate. During discharge the top layer gets thinner and bottom layer thicker, during charging this reverses. There is no need for membranes. Degrading of the system is nearly absent. Donald Sadoway c.s. formed a company now called Ambri.

P.S. in a latest development, Sadoway seems to be using a membrane after all, see Nature link below.

[wired.com] – Inside the race to build the battery of tomorrow
[wbur.org] – A Low-Tech Approach To Energy Storage: Molten Metals
[wikipedia.org] – Donald Sadoway
[wikipedia.org] – Molten-salt battery
[news.mit.edu] – A new approach to rechargeable batteries
[greentechmedia.com] – Ambri Still Chasing Its Liquid Metal Battery Dreams
[ambri.com] – Company site
[phys.org] – New battery made of molten metals may offer low-cost, long-lasting storage for the grid. Liquid electrodes solve the problem of degrading solid ones.
[nature.com] – Faradaically selective membrane for liquid metal displacement batteries
[chemistryworld.com] – Solid electrolyte boosts liquid metal battery


Everything molten: lighter metal A, salt electrolyte and heavier metal B.

The green elements are heavier and will sink to the bottom.

Read more…

CAES Plans for Britain and the Netherlands

The British company Storelectric is joining forces with NAM (Shell/Exxon) in exploring the idea of using the existing natural gas infrastructure in the Netherlands for adiabatic compressed air energy storage purposes of renewable electricity. The heat that is generated during compression to ca. 70 bar will be stored and reused during expansion phase. Storelectric believes it can deliver CAES at 70-85% efficiency. Recuperation of stored heat is an essential ingredient in increasing efficiency.

They aim to build underground storage sites in the Netherlands and potentially the North Sea, to store energy from offshore wind farms and onshore solar power plants.

[theengineer.co.uk] – UK’s Storelectric brings compressed air storage to the Netherlands
[ensoc.nl] – NAM met Britten in zee voor energieopslag
[parliament.uk] – Business Plan Grid Scale Energy Storage
[storelectric.com] – Storelectric company site
[wikipedia.org] – Compressed air energy storage

World’s Largest Solar Park Noor in Morocco

– investment: $9B
– 540 MW peak
– Technology: CSP and molten salt
– Construction begin: 2013
– Commission date: 2016
– Build bij TSK-Acciona-Sener/Spain

[wikipedia.org] – Ouarzazate Solar Power Station

Long Term Storage of Heat in Isomers

Chalmers University in Sweden has come up with a novel way of long-term (years) storing (solar) heat, namely in isomers.

– Discharge operating temperature: 63 C
– Storage capacity: 0.25 kWh/kg (2x Tesla Powerwall)
– 125 charge-discharge cycles without detoriation.

Researcher Moth-Poulsen thinks there is a lot of potential for improvement, like operating temperatures of 110 C.

[sciencealert.com] – Scientists Develop Liquid Fuel That Can Store The Sun’s Energy
[wiley.com] – Liquid Norbornadiene Photoswitches for Solar Energy Storage
[mynewsdesk.com] – Emissions-free energy system stores heat
[pubs.rsc.org] – Macroscopic heat release in a molecular solar thermal energy storage system
[wikipedia.org] – Isomer
[nbcnews.com] – Scientists bottle solar energy and turn it into liquid fuel
[wikipedia.org] – Norbornadiene
[wikipedia.org] – Quadricyclane

Arlanda Test Results

The idea: mount a metal conductor strip/rail to the road and voila, you have an e-road, a sort of inverted trolley-bus system for cars and trucks. If a country like Sweden would install these rails in the main routes only, ensuring that no home would be further away from a road with such a rail, it would reduce the required size of the battery of e-vehicles enormously. Think 50 kg instead of 400 kg, because the car would charge the battery during driving.

A test route was equipped with a conducting rail earlier this year and the test results are in. And they are encouraging. 200 kW can be delivered, think a truck. The system works good under snow and ice conditions. No need for heating the rail.

Back-of-an-envelope calculation of the cost of an e-road system: The producer Elways claims that the cost per kilometer for 2 lanes is less than 1 million dollar. Go to Google Maps to verify that from Malmö in the South to Gällivare in the North it is 1740 km over road. Two parallel North-South roads exist, that’s 3500 km at a varying distance of 50-150 km. Add some East-West legs to connect these two roads and you arrive at perhaps 5,000 km or less than 5 billion $ to electrify your roads. Sweden has 10 million citizens, so that would be 500 $/capita. That’s very affordable. Note that autonomous driving will relieve the population of the need of owning a car, reducing the per mile cost with a factor of 4-10 according to this study.

More videos below and even more in the elways-link.

[elways.se] – Arlanda Test Results
[deepresource] – E-Road, E-Vehicles Breakthrough in Sweden?

Read more…

Sif Terminal Rotterdam

Borssele 1-4 offshore wind parks (1.5 GW) now under construction. For the first time 8 MW and 9.5 MW turbines are being used offshore.

[source]

[offshorewind.biz] – Borssele III & IV to Feature MHI Vestas 9.5MW Turbines, Sif Monopiles
[offshorewind.biz] – Borssele III & IV Moving to Construction Phase
[4coffshore.com] – Borssele III & IV – Blauwwind Offshore Wind Farm
[nl.wikipedia.org] – Windpark Borssele

Prof. Begemann Doesn’t Believe in a Man-made Climate Crisis

Dutch language video with no subs.

Prof. Begemann visited the North- and South-poles 6 times and arrived at contrarian conclusions.

[klimaatgek.nl] – Drijfijs

HYBRIT – Fossil Free Steel

Global crude steel production in 2017: 1.69 billion metric ton.
Every metric ton of produced steel comes with 1.83 ton CO2 emission.
Total global CO2 emissions are 3.09 billion metric ton.
Total global CO2 emission are 50 billion metric ton.
In other words, steel production is responsible for ca. 6% of global CO2 emission.

The Swedish HYBRIT program aims at taking out these 6% by switching from coal to hydrogen, replacing CO2 emissions with the harmless output of water.

[source]

[vattenfall.com] – HYBRIT: Globally-unique Pilot Plant for creating Fossil-free steel
[ssab.com] – HYBRIT – Toward fossil-free steel
[hrcak.srce.hr] – CO2 Emissions in the Steel Industry
[wikipedia.org] – List of countries by steel production
[worldsteel.org] –

Donald Sadoway

[wikipedia.org] – Donald Sadoway

He is a noted expert on batteries and has done significant research on how to improve the performance and longevity of portable power sources. In parallel, he is an expert on the extraction of metals from their ores and the inventor of molten oxide electrolysis, which has the potential to produce crude steel without the use of carbon reductant thereby totally eliminating greenhouse gas emissions… As a researcher, Sadoway has focused on environmental ways to extract metals from their ores, as well as producing more efficient batteries. His research has often been driven by the desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while improving quality and lowering costs. He is the co-inventor of a solid polymer electrolyte. This material, used in his “sLimcell” has the capability of allowing batteries to offer twice as much power per kilogram as is possible in current lithium ion batteries…. In August 2006, a team that he led demonstrated the feasibility of extracting iron from its ore through molten oxide electrolysis. When powered exclusively by renewable electricity, this technique has the potential to eliminate the carbon dioxide emissions that are generated through traditional methods… In 2009, Sadoway disclosed the liquid metal battery comprising liquid layers of magnesium and antimony separated by a layer of molten salt[8] that could be used for stationary energy storage. Research on this concept was being funded by ARPA-E and the French energy company Total S.A. Experimental data showed a 69% DC-to-DC storage efficiency with good storage capacity and relatively low leakage current (self discharge). In 2010, with funding from Bill Gates and Total S.A., Sadoway and two others, David Bradwell and Luis Ortiz, co-founded a company called the Liquid Metal Battery Corporation (now Ambri) in order to scale up and commercialize the technology.

Read more…

Expansion Shoalhaven Pumped Hydro Scheme To 475 MW

[cleantechnica.com] – Shoalhaven Pumped Hydro Scheme To Double To 475 MW

Post Navigation