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Archive for the category “electrolyser”

Green Hydrogen Systems Electrolyser Tour

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Your questions on green hydrogen and electrolysers answered!

I visited Green Hydrogen Systems in Kolding, Denmark to ask an expert all about electrolysis and electrolysers.

01:11 How does an electrolyser work? (tabletop electrolysis demonstration)
01:49 What are the components in an electrolyser?
02:30 What consumables does the process use?
03:17 How can we make electrolysis more efficient?
04:25 What are the advantages of alkaline water electrolysis compared to PEM (polymer electrolyte membrane) or SOEC (solid oxide electrolyser cell)?
05:09 How much does an electrolyser cost? (levelized cost of hydrogen, capex, efficiency)
06:07 What do you do with the oxygen after you split water?
06:39 Electrolyser tour: an up-close look at a real electrolyser
08:06 Do you have to use pure water for electrolysis, or can polluted or salt water be used?
08:46 How much hydrogen can a shipping container sized electrolyser produce?
09:02 Applications for hydrogen: will we use hydrogen to store and generate electricity?
09:46 What about the low efficiency of using electricity to make hydrogen instead of just using electricity directly?
11:01 How do you calculate the efficiency of an electrolyser? (electrolysis thermoneutral voltage)
12:06 How much more efficient can electrolysis get?
12:26 What kinds of improvements are needed to improve efficiency?
12:59 How long will it take to develop a more efficient electrolyser?
13:16 Is it realistic that the price of hydrogen can come down as quickly as it is predicted to?

“There’s a natural hierarchy somehow, you should use electricity as electricity for all the cases you can. Of course, that’s obvious. But when you cannot use electricity, you need to convert it to something else. And then hydrogen is a very good candidate.”

This was the answer from Kasper Therkildsen, Head of Technology at Green Hydrogen Systems, during our recent tour/ interview when I questioned the low efficiency of using electricity to make hydrogen relative to just using electricity directly.

We discussed likely applications for hydrogen (Kasper anticipates transportation, industrial purposes and in some cases process heating), and we ran through as many as time allowed of the fifty viewer questions you all suggested ahead of the tour.

There’s a benchtop demonstration of alkaline water electrolysis, we talk electrolyser technology development, how much more efficient it can get (and how, and how quickly).

But is it realistic that the price of hydrogen can come down as fast as it is predicted to? According to Kasper:
“10 years back nobody believed that the price of electricity would be where it is now from renewable sources. And we’ll see the same with hydrogen. You know, once things get rolling, it’s gonna be tremendous.”

Thanks to Kasper Therkildsen and the rest of the team at Green Hydrogen Systems for spending an afternoon with me and patiently answering all of my questions!

Massive Price-Decline Chinese Electrolysers – $300/kW

Good news for the prospects of the hydrogen economy, bad news for the European competitiveness in the hydrogen domain. According to a Bloomberg report, Chinese OEMs are exporting electrolysers, that are four times cheaper than the European competition. One is reminded by the fate of the European solar panel manufacturing, that all but vanished in Europe. In 2021, a Chinese electrolyser can be acquired for $300 per kW. That means that the output of a large 12 MW offshore wind turbine, with a price tag of $10 million, can be absorbed by an electrolyser array of $3.6 million.

[] – Will US and European green hydrogen markets soon be flooded by cheap Chinese electrolysers?
[] – Europe, China battle for global supremacy on electrolyser manufacturing
[deepresource] – 213 GW Hydrogen Electrolyser Project Pipeline, 85% in the EU
[deepresource] – Electrolyser Price Breakthrough

*** UPDATE ***

[deepresource] – Nel Hydrogen Announces $350/kW Electrolyser (2020)

It looks like Bloomberg is too pessimistic at the price level of electrolysers in Europe. Nel announced that it can deliver at a price of $350/kW, basically the same as the Chinese level.

Hydrogen Champion Sunfire

Sunfire is rapidly developing from a startup into a multi-billion enterprise and potential contender to become to hydrogen production, what Vestas and Siemens-Gamesa are to wind power.

[] – Eben noch belächelt, jetzt Milliardendeals mit Wasserstoff
[] – Sunfire gets EUR 60m govt grant to develop, scale hydrogen technology
[] – Sunfire company site
[deepresource] – Sunfire posts

ThyssenKrupp to Build 2 GW Electrolyser in Saudi-Arabia

US chemical company Air Products has placed an order with Thyssen-Krupp for more than 2 GW electrolyser capacity on behalf of an ammonia operation in the futuristic town-under-construction Neom-Saudi-Arabia, to produce 650 ton green hydrogen per day. Planned operational date: 2026.

[] – Air Products, ACWA Power and NEOM Sign Agreement for $5 Billion Production Facility in NEOM Powered by Renewable Energy for Production and Export of Green Hydrogen to Global Markets

The green hydrogen avalanche has started!

More multi-GW hydrogen green projects in the works in Oman:

[] – Acwa Power to sign $7bn green hydrogen agreement in Oman

[deepresource] – ThyssenKrupp Plans €5B Hydrogen IPO
[deepresource] – Thyssen-Krupp Eyes 5 GW Electrolyser Production Capacity
[deepresource] – ThyssenKrupp 88 MW Electrolyser for Hydro-Quebec
[deepresource] – Thyssen-Krupp – Coal Out, Hydrogen In
[] – Neom

Thyssen-Krupp Eyes 5 GW Electrolyser Production Capacity

[] – Expansion to 5 gigawatts of annual production capacity
[] – ‘Disruptive approach’: Thyssenkrupp to boost H2 electrolyser production line to 5GW

Total Eren in 10 GW Green Hydrogen Project in Chile

H2 Magallanes project

Chile has one of the best renewable onshore potential in the world. Solar arrays high in the Andes mountains receive three times as much solar irradiation as Europe. The Chilean south has excellent wind resources. It is there that French oil major Total and its subsidiary Total Eren are planning a massive green hydrogen/ammonia project, called “H2 Magallanes”. Work is said to begin in 2025, with first hydrogen production to commence in 2027.

Chile aims for a 25 GW-worth hydrogen production by 2030.

In parallel, both Chilean and Australian officials have announced their ambition to export locally produced hydrogen to Europe’s biggest port, Rotterdam, so it can be further distributed over Western Europe from there.

[] – Total Eren press announcement
[] – Total Eren launches studies for H2 Magallanes project
[] – Total Eren to tap ‘world’s best onshore wind’ for 10GW Chile green hydrogen plant
[] – Chile wants to export green hydrogen to Port of Rotterdam
[] – Western Australia teams up with Rotterdam for green hydrogen exports

Photocatalysis – Solar Hydrogen Without Panels & Electrolyzer

Oil companies know that their days are numbered… well, as oil companies. So they are facing the choice of either go extinct or reinvent themselves. That’s actually not too difficult a choice to make.

Take Spanish oil and energy giant Repsol. Where northern Europeans are concentrating on their wind resource, Repsol, situated in one of the sunniest countries in Europe, wants to try its luck with our nearest star. Their strategy: try to avoid using solar panels and electrolyzers and use photons for splitting water directly.

In chemistry, photocatalysis is the acceleration of a photoreaction in the presence of a catalyst. In catalysed photolysis, light is absorbed by an adsorbed substrate. In photogenerated catalysis, the photocatalytic activity (PCA) depends on the ability of the catalyst to create electron–hole pairs, which generate free radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radicals: •OH) able to undergo secondary reactions. Its practical application was made possible by the discovery of water electrolysis by means of titanium dioxide (TiO2).

The principle has been known since 1911, discovered by a German scientist Alexander Eibner, when he studied pigments.

However, a breakthrough in photocatalysis research occurred in 1972, when Akira Fujishima and Kenichi Honda discovered electrochemical photolysis of water occurring between connected TiO2 and platinum electrodes, in which ultraviolet light was absorbed by the former electrode, and electrons would flow from the TiO2 electrode (anode; site of oxidation reaction) to the platinum electrode (cathode; site of reduction reaction); with hydrogen production occurring at the cathode. This was one of the first instances in which hydrogen production could come from a clean and cost-effective source.

Repsol is planning to build a 100 kilo/day H2 photocatalytic demo-reactor in Puertollano, Spain and hopes to own a commercially attractive method of producing hydrogen this way by 2030, together with gas grid operator Enagas. Envisioned start date: 2024. By 2028, production should be scaled-up towards 10 tonnes/day. Both companies have secured EU funding for the project.

[] – Repsol and Enagás will develop technology to produce renewable hydrogen
[] – Repsol-Enagas Renewable H2 Project Gets EC’s Financial Backing
[] – Repsol, Enagas secure EU funds for photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen production
[] – ‘Very disruptive’ direct solar-to-hydrogen commercially viable by 2030, says oil group Repsol
[] – Photocatalysis
[] – Photocatalytic water splitting
[] – Repsol
[] – Enagás

Read more…

Elektrolyse: Sauberer Wasserstoff für die Zukunft

Popularized German language video about electrolyser technology.

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