DeepResource

Observing the world of renewable energy and sustainable living

The Netherlands is Placing its Bets on the Hydrogen Economy

Natural gas power plant Eemshaven. One of the blocks is retrofitted for hydrogen.

The Netherlands are “plat als een dubbeltje” (flat as a dime) and as such pumped hydro storage solutions are virtually impossible. The people behind the recent Climate Accord, that is from the industry to environmentalist groups, see hydrogen as the key of the energy transition. Current annual hydrogen production (from natural gas) is 800,000 ton, mostly for agriculture and refineries. The goal is “green hydrogen”, produced from solar and wind, without CO2 as a byproduct. Hydrogen is needed for several purposes: as storage and for certain aspects of industrial society that can’t be covered with electricity alone. Batteries alone are no solution. For the storage of 2000 kWh you would need 3 sea containers per household at the cost of 40,000 euro/year. You can store the same 2000 kWh worth of energy in a hydrogen container of merely 1 m3. And yes, there are considerable conversion losses from electricity –> H2 –> electricity, but hydrogen can be exported via existing but retrofitted natural gas networks, where building new cables would be 100-200 times more expensive.

Dutch industry is already busy with laying the foundations of a hydrogen economy. In the northern Groningen province, GasUnie is developing a small factory where solar electricity is converted in hydrogen (“power-to-gas”). The best location for large scale hydrogen factories is probably at sea, near the wind parks. Fortunately there is an enormous pipeline infrastructure in the North Sea, a left over of the gas and oil age, that can be reused for hydrogen. Large scale hydrogen production won’t happen before 2030, simply because there is yet not enough wind power generated that can’t be used immediately. 3,000 turbines are seen as a critical number from where storage would become necessary.

Currently Holland is competing with post-Fukushima Japan to be the owner of the first hydrogen economy.

[volkskrant.nl] – Ineens lijkt waterstof het antwoord op alle energieproblemen

[deepresource] – Nederlandse Regering Presenteert Klimaatakkoord
[deepresource] – First Climate Neutral Power Station in The Netherlands
[deepresource] – Prof. Ad van Wijk (#1 Dutch hydrogen guru)
[noordelijkeinnovationboard.nl] – The Green Hydrogen Economy in the Northern Netherlands (English pdf, 51p)
[ammoniaindustry.com] – A Roadmap for The Green Hydrogen Economy in the Northern Netherlands

The report contains significant financial analysis on how green hydrogen can be produced at industrial scale, either from biomass gasification or water electrolysis, at a cost of EUR 2.20 to 2.30 per kg.

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Nederland Waterstofland

Retrospect conference organized by Dutch employers’ organizations VNO-NCW and MKB on the topic of “The Netherlands Hydrogen Country”.

[vno-ncw.nl] – Terugblik conferentie Nederland Waterstofland

National hydrogen guru prof. Ad van Wijk is baking an egg on hydrogen.

Norwegian Battery Breakthrough

[source]

Researchers at Norway’s Department of Energy Technology (IFE) in Kjeller say they have perfected a way to substitute silicon for the graphite commonly used in the anodes of lithium ion batteries.

silicon battery technology NorwayThe discovery will lead to batteries that can power an electric car for 600 miles or more, the researchers claim… The researchers have found a way to mix silicon with other elements to create an anode that is stable and long lasting and which has three to five times higher capacity than a conventional graphite anode.

[cleantechnica.com] – Researchers In Norway Claim Lithium Ion Battery Breakthrough

Nederlandse Regering Presenteert Klimaatakkoord

Today the Dutch government presented its “klimaatakkoord”, a detailed energy strategy for the coming three decades. Core points:

– 49% less CO2 emissions in 2030 as compared to 1990, more than the 40% required by EU regulation
– Lower taxes on electricity and higher taxes on natural gas to encourage the transition
– 11.5 GW North-Sea wind by 2030
– 75 GW North-Sea wind by 2050
– Required extra investment: 15-20 billion euro
– CO2 sequestration is an option
– 3-4 GW hydrogen production by 2030
– By 2030 84 billion kWh needs to be renewable, 5 times the 2018 amount. 49 billion Kwh will be from offshore wind
– 50% of the renewable energy capacity needs to be owned by local parties, like private households
– Demand management will be introduced
– Intermittent supply is admittedly “a problem”, c.q. “challenge”
– Traffic becomes “green”
– Most of the Dutch part of the North-Sea will be filled with turbines; fishing will be impossible for large ships.

The Dutch government exploited its huge natural gas reserves to the max in order to avoid being stuck with stranded assets, but now that due to soil subsidence further large scale extraction is no longer possible, the government is radically changing course and has the ambition to advance from being Europe’s rear light in all things renewable energy into becoming a front-bencher. The government can build on deep acceptance within Dutch society for the expensive transition that lies ahead.

[klimaatakkoord.nl] – Official project site
[klimaatakkoord.nl] – Official detailed report for download (pdf p89)
[nos.nl] – Hoofdlijnen Klimaatakkoord
[vk.nl] – Zo moet Nederland er op energiegebied over twaalf jaar uitzien
[smart-port.nl] – Wind at Sea
[trouw.nl] – Wie krijgt straks de rekening van het Klimaatakkoord?

[nu.nl] – Dit betekent het klimaatakkoord voor je woning

In de komende drie jaar worden 102.500 bestaande corporatiewoningen van het gas afgesloten… Energie moeten we dus uit andere bronnen gaan halen. Nieuwbouwwoningen worden sinds 1 juli niet meer aangesloten op het gasnetwerk… Dat betekent niet dat je als huiseigenaar zelf verantwoordelijk bent voor het verzinnen van de beste aanpak. In het akkoord staat dat gemeenten in Nederland eind 2021 hun visie op deze transitie moeten vaststellen. Daar moet in staan welke wijken wanneer worden aangepast. Woningen worden wijk voor wijk verduurzaamd. Dat kan met warmtenetten, helemaal elektrisch, met warmtepompen of met duurzaam gas. Gemeenten moeten samen met bewoners en gebouweigenaren per wijk de beste oplossingen bepalen. Het isoleren van je woning wordt in 2030 verplicht. Je gemeente vertelt je vanzelf welke maatregelen er in jouw wijk worden genomen… In het akkoord wordt een nieuw soort lening omschreven: de gebouwgebonden financiering. Daarmee wordt het voor huizenbezitters eenvoudiger om ook maatregelen te nemen. De lening is gekoppeld aan het huis en niet aan de eigenaar. De kosten van de lening mogen niet hoger uitvallen dan wat de verlaging van de energierekening oplevert. De looptijd van een lening wordt dertig jaar en gaat dus over van bewoner op bewoner. Ook krijgen huizenkopers bij elke aankoop een aanbod om woningen te isoleren met financieringsmogelijkheden… De subsidie op zonnepanelen is al stopgezet, maar de overheid geeft nog steeds subsidie op de aanschaf van zonneboilers, warmtepompen, pelletkachels en biomassaketels.

[energiegids.nl] – Voorstel Klimaatakkoord gepresenteerd

[eufin.nl] – De verbouwing van Nederland beginnen

Al ruim voor 2030 verduurzamen we ieder jaar 200.000 woningen. Daarmee reduceren we onze CO2-uitstoot enorm. Een CO2-neutrale gebouwde omgeving in 2050 is geen utopie, het kan echt… De komende jaren zetten we bovendien alles op alles om meer technici op te leiden voor de energietransitie… Het Klimaatakkoord schrijft het huidige aardgasnetwerk nog niet af. Daarmee blijft de mogelijkheid open in de toekomst gebruik te maken van duurzaam gas. Het huidige gasnetwerk is daarvoor uitermate geschikt. In het akkoord is op aandringen van UNETO-VNI opgenomen dat er demonstratieprojecten komen voor duurzaam gas en waterstof. De installateurskoepel verwacht dat dit een belangrijke bijdrage gaat leveren aan de energietransitie. Woningen zullen worden verwarmd door warmtenetten en collectieve of individuele (hybride) warmtepompen.

[engineersonline.nl] – Industrie gaat CO2 ondergronds opslaan

De industrie moet inzetten op efficiëntere processen en efficiënt gebruik van warmte. Schone stroom vervangt op termijn fossiele brandstof en grondstoffen worden hergebruikt of vervangen door duurzame grondstoffen. Omdat deze omschakeling tijd en geld kost, wordt eerst gestart met de ondergrondse opslag van CO2… Ondergrondse opslag van CO2 is nodig om in 2030 genoeg CO2 uit de lucht te houden… Arbeidsmarkt en scholing zijn sterk bepalend voor het tempo van de energietransitie en het draagvlak daarvoor. Om de klimaatdoelstellingen mogelijk te maken zijn tienduizenden extra vakkrachten nodig, die nu al niet gemakkelijk te vinden zijn. “Het is nu aan het kabinet en de Tweede Kamer om met richtinggevende keuzes te komen”, zegt voorzitter van het Klimaatberaad Ed Nijpels. “Daarna kunnen de partijen de hoofdlijnen uitwerken in concrete en bindende afspraken. Als het tempo erin blijft, ligt er eind dit jaar een akkoord met handtekeningen… Het is de bedoeling dat de zeven miljoen huizen en miljoen gebouwen in Nederland met duurzame warmte worden verwarmd. Hiervoor wordt een wijkgerichte benadering gehanteerd. Om het aanbod van duurzame warmte te vergroten, wordt geothermie fors opgeschaald. De ambitie is een uitbreiding van 3 petajoule naar 50 PJ in 2030 en meer dan 200 PJ in 2050.

Waterbeheerders willen werk maken van aquathermie, het gebruik van koude en warmte uit afval- en oppervlaktewater. Zij verwachten 80 tot 120 PJ in 2050 te kunnen realiseren. Deze energiebron is relatief nieuw, waardoor nog veel ervaring nodig is. Daarom wordt voorgesteld om vanaf 2019 een driejarig programma voor aquathermie uit te voeren. Tevens wordt aquathermie onderdeel van een aantal proeftuinen in het kader van het 100-wijken programma, dat is bedoeld om jaarlijks 30.000 tot 50.000 bestaande woningen aardgasvrij te maken voor het eind van de kabinetsperiode…

Waterstof wordt aangeduid als een sectoroverstijgende hoofdlijn. De sectortafels voor elektriciteit en industrie stellen een programmatische aanpak voor. Hierin worden de investeringskosten van elektrolyse versneld verminderd, zodat groene waterstof die is opgewekt uit duurzame bronnen (wind en zon) een goede rol in de toekomst kan spelen. De ambitie is om 3 à 4 gigawatt aan groene waterstof in 2030 te produceren.”

[h2owaternetwerk.nl] – Stevige Bijdrage van Aquathermie en Groene Waterstof

Het Voorstel voor hoofdlijnen van het Klimaatakkoord zoals het document officieel heet, is opgesteld door meer dan honderd maatschappelijke partijen. Zij hebben vier maanden lang gediscussieerd aan vijf sectortafels: elektriciteit, gebouwde omgeving, industrie, landbouw & landgebruik en mobiliteit. De organisaties dragen de bouwstenen aan voor hoe Nederland de doelen in het Klimaatakkoord van Parijs kan halen.

[twitter.com] – Zeewier en warmtepomp: deze bedrijven profiteren van Klimaatakkoord
[ad.nl] – Windmolen wordt het nieuwe gas
[gemeente.nu] – Huiver voor ‘energiearmoede’ door klimaatakkoord
[stadszaken.nl] – Dit moeten stadsverbeteraars weten over het Klimaatakkoord
[consumentenbond.nl] – Klimaatakkoord: nog veel losse eindjes
[nu.nl] – Dit betekent het klimaatakkoord voor je woning


Chairman Dutch building industry Maxime Verhagen expresses his support for the Klimaatakkoord


Major Dutch banks have announced to support the transition by providing long-term loans (think 30 years or even intergenerational) to make houses more sustainable (isolation, heat pumps, solar panels). After 2030 taking up loans for this purpose could become obligatory.

Switzerland – The Alpine Battery

Swiss hydro power generates 60% of the countries electricity.

[wikipedia.org] – Electricity sector in Switzerland

More General Electric renewable energy drone videos:

Read more…

Pumped Hydro Storage Proposal for Loch Ness

Urquhart Castle, Loch Ness

400 MW, 2.4 GWh pumped hydro storage plant proposed for Loch Ness by ILI Energy, enough to power 400,000 households for 6 hours. Scotland has 2.4 million households and in 2017 69% of its electricity generating capacity was renewable, mostly wind. By 2020 this share is expected to be increased to the full 100%.

[ilienergy.com] – Major hydro project proposed for Loch Ness
[wired.com] – Scotland’s next Loch Ness monster could power 400,000 homes
[spiegel.de] – Loch Ness soll als Energiespeicher dienen

Baidu Begins Mass Production Self-Driving Bus

[wikipedia.org] – Baidu

Ecovat Seasonal Heat Storage

Storage temperatures up to 93 degrees Celsius and more than 90% storage energy efficiency over 6 months. Scale: 200-1000 houses.

[ecovat.eu] – Ecovat company site
[dgem.nl] – Ecovat Smart Thermal Energy Storage
[ecovat.eu] – Production line impressions

Read more…

38% Electricity OECD Europe Renewable

More than gas and coal combined (March 2018).

[twitter.com] – IEA

[iea.org] – Monthly Electricity Statistics

Groningen Wants to Become the Dutch Hydrogen Province

Why Groningen? Prof. van Wijk and premier hydrogen evangelist in the Netherlands sums it up:

1. Paris Accords. Not specific for Groningen, but important stimulus.
2. Groningen produced natural gas for decades. The expertise and infrastructure for a replacement is there.
3. There is a lot of renewable electricity on offer from Norway and from Danish, German and Dutch offshore wind parks.
4. There is a lot of chemical industry already present that could work with hydrogen.

The goal is to produce 270,000 tons of hydrogen annually, in order to bring down per kilo hydrogen prices to 2-3 euro.

[nltimes.nl] – Groningen to Test Netherlands’ First Hydrogen Train
[profadvanwijk.com] – The Green Hydrogen Economy in the Northern Netherlands
[northerntimes.nl] – Groningen Seaports investing in green hydrogen
[deepresource] – Prof. Ad van Wijk
[deepresource] – Price of Hydrogen Production via Electrolysis
[deepresource] – Cost Hydrogen From Renewable Energy

NOOR – World’s Largest Solar Power Plant in Morocco

The countries of Northern Africa have one of the best solar resources in the world, lots of space and additionally close proximity to one of the economic power houses of the world, Europe. Additionally, the Maghreb has a weak economy. As part of the international division of labor nothing would be more logical than that Northern Africa would concentrate itself on producing renewable energy, like electricity and/or hydrogen, for European markets, replacing Arabia as an important oil-energy supplier to Europe.

Airborn Solar Panels


“Liftoff, we have a liftoff!”. Europe, one of those territories eagerly absorbing photo-voltaic energy generation, has a little bit of a space problem, being one of the most densely-populated areas in the world. A field covered with solar panels unfortunately can’t be used for agriculture. Or can it? The Fraunhofer Institute has found out that it is very well possible to use land for both agriculture and energy generation by stacking both functionalities.

Upshot agricultural yield: corn slightly negative, but grass and shadow-loving potatoes make no difference.

Influence partly shadowing on different crops

[wikipedia.com] – Agrivoltaic
[ise.fraunhofer.de] – Agrophotovoltaics Goes Global: from Chile to Vietnam
[biomlandconf.files.wordpress.com] – 20 slides Fraunhofer Institute
[cleantechnica.com] – Fraunhofer Experiments In Chile And Vietnam Prove Value Of Agrophotovoltaic Farming
[cleantechnica.com] – Combining Solar Panels With Agriculture Makes Land More Productive

Britain Rules the Waves of Offshore Wind

This graph depicts the total amount of offshore wind projects that are “in the pipeline”, a branch of sport dominated by Europeans, who are lucky to own large, shallow water tables in the North Sea, Irish Sea and Baltic Sea, with excellent wind speeds (>10 m/s average). These 600,000 km2 combined have the potential to supply the entire EU with clean electricity three times the current consumption. Currently the British are adopting wind energy at a breath-taking speed, pun intended, although the developers and equipment producers are mainly continental Europeans, that is Danish, Germans, Dutch, Norwegians, Swedish, whose industries are growing rapidly and have the potential to become the successors of the Anglo Seven Sisters oil giants of the 20th century.

[cleantechnica.com] – UK Leads Offshore Wind Rankings As Global Pipeline Increases 10% In 2018, Reports RenewableUK
[deepresource] – The Enormous Energy Potential of the North Sea
[wikipedia.org] – Seven Sisters (oil companies)
[deepresource] – Gold Mine North Sea
[deepresource] – Goldmine Windenergy

Renewables 2017 – Global Status Report

[ren21.net] –

Enyway – kWh Flea Market

Enyway is a new market for locally produced electricity and spin-off of a large renewable energy producer Lichtblick (“glimmer of hope”), a sort of AirBnB for electricity. Enyway is not a producer but a market place, a mediator. If you have a spare roof or unused piece of land, you can install solar panels and directly sell you electricity to others via the Enyway portal. This development could encourage private investment in renewable energy. The key-success factor could be the feed-in tariff system, that could be abolished soon, now that the energy transition is in full swing. Local producers could use this to sell their renewable energy to buyers, who prefer renewable energy over fossil-generated kWh’s. The real upshot is that new investment opportunities open up for private persons. increasing the speed of the energy transition.

[enyway.com] – Company portal
[spiegel.de] – Diese Mühle erzeugt 100.000 Kilowattstunden Strom
[de.wikipedia.org] – Lichtblick (Unternehmen)

High Efficiency Electricity Storage With Antiferroelectrics

[source]

Here we report our first-principles-based theoretical predictions that Bi1−xRxFeO3 systems (R being a lanthanide, Nd in this work) can potentially allow high energy densities (100–150 J cm−3 [*]) and efficiencies (80–88%)

[*] That would be 1 kWh/24 liter.

[phys.org] – Antiferroelectrics for storing energy from renewable sources
[phys.org] – First step toward creating efficient electrolyte-free batteries
[nature.com] – Designing lead-free antiferroelectrics for energy storage
[wikipedia.org] – Antiferroelectricity

Dockwise Used to Transport Windfarm Jackets From Gulf

Offshore wind moving into the area formerly reserved for giant oil platforms only. The world’s largest heavy lifting vessel Dockwise Vanguard of the Dutch based Boskalis was used to transport 36 jackets from Lamprell’s construction yard in Jebel Ali to Vlissingen, from where they will eventually be installed in the 714 MW East-Anglia ONE offshore wind farm. Partners: ScottishPower Renewables (developer), Boskalis & van Oord (logistics), Lamprell (jackets), Siemens (102 x 7 MW turbines + rotor blades).

[offshorewind.biz] – Lamprell Hires Dockwise to Transport East Anglia ONE Jackets
[offshorewind.biz] – First Lamprell-Produced EA1 Jackets Arrive in Vlissingen
[wikipedia.org] – East Anglia Array

The State of Solar

[worldatlas.com] – Countries That Use The Most Solar Power
[energy-charts.de] – Electricity-production in Germany

Earth, if All the Ice Melts

Large parts of China, Florida, Mississippi River delta, Teas, India, Bangladesh, the Netherlands, Denmark, East-England, Australia, Cuba… would disappear.

[cleantechnica.com] – Full Fledged 5 Alarm Climate Emergency In Antarctica

Callisto & Prometheus – ESA Space Transport Reusability

14 December 2017 – An ultra-low cost reusable rocket engine, Prometheus, using liquid oxygen–methane propellants, is set to power Europe’s future launchers. Today, ESA and ArianeGroup signed a contract to develop a full-scale demonstrator to be ground tested in November 2020. Prometheus demonstrates the systematic application of an extreme design-to-cost approach, new propellant and innovative manufacturing technologies. It lowers costs to a tenth of those for Ariane 5’s Vulcain 2 engine.

[esa.int] – Prometheus to power future launchers
[wikipedia.org] – Prometheus (rocket engine)
[eucass.eu] – Prometheus, a LOX/LCH4 Reusable Rocket Engine
[spacenews.com] – ESA kickstarts Prometheus reusable engine with first funding tranche
[spacenews.com] – France, Germany studying reusability with a subscale flyback booster
[popularmechanics.com] – Europe Is Building Its Own Reusable Rocket

Read more…

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