Observing the renewable energy transition from a European perspective

Christiaan Huygens – Dutch Light


British author and historian of science Hugh Aldersey-Williams has written a biography about Christiaan Huygens. From an interview with Aldersey-Williams:

In “Dutch Light”, biographer Hugh Aldersey-Williams lets the facts speak. Based on all his achievements, he hoists mathematician, physicist and astronomer Christiaan Huygens on the shield more than three centuries after his death. “He was the greatest scientist in 17th century Europe, in the nearly eighty years between Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton”, “said the British author and physicist. “Galileo was the giant on whose shoulders Huygens stood, Newton overshadowed Huygens’ genius”. This is an unjust judgment of history, because Huygens’ achievements surpass that of Newton – the greatest British scientist of all time – in some important respects.

From Amazon:

Filled with incident, discovery, and revelation, Dutch Light is a vivid account of Christiaan Huygens’s remarkable life and career, but it is also nothing less than the story of the birth of modern science as we know it.

Europe’s greatest scientist during the latter half of the seventeenth century, Christiaan Huygens was a true polymath. A towering figure in the fields of astronomy, optics, mechanics, and mathematics, many of his innovations in methodology, optics and timekeeping remain in use to this day. Among his many achievements, he developed the theory of light travelling as a wave, invented the mechanism for the pendulum clock, and discovered the rings of Saturn – via a telescope that he had also invented.

A man of fashion and culture, Christiaan came from a family of multi-talented individuals whose circle included not only leading figures of Dutch society, but also artists and philosophers such as Rembrandt, Locke and Descartes. The Huygens family and their contemporaries would become key actors in the Dutch Golden Age, a time of unprecedented intellectual expansion within the Netherlands. Set against a backdrop of worldwide religious and political turmoil, this febrile period was defined by danger, luxury and leisure, but also curiosity, purpose, and tremendous possibility.

Following in Huygens’s footsteps as he navigates this era while shuttling opportunistically between countries and scientific disciplines, Hugh Aldersey-Williams builds a compelling case to reclaim Huygens from the margins of history and acknowledge him as one of our most important and influential scientific figures.

Christiaan Huygens by Caspar Netscher, 1671

[] – Christiaan Huygens
[] – Christiaan Huygens
[] – Œuvres complètes de Christiaan Huygens
[] – Auteur Hugh Aldersey-Williams wil een herwaardering van deze Nederlandse wetenschapper: ‘Hij was beter dan Newton’
[] – Haagse wiskundige is te lang onderschat: ‘Christiaan Huygens was groter dan Newton’

Read more…

Agrophotovoltaics – Lowering the Cost of Renewable Energy

Solar photo-voltaic power claims a lot of land. In the desert that is not a problem, but in populated areas that land needs to compete between energy and agricultural interests. Or does it? The German Fraunhofer Institute has been a global front-runner in promoting a dual use approach and as such increase the financial return for the landowner. It is possible to keep sheep under solar panels or harvest honey from flowers growing in between.

[] – Enel begins operations of Aurora PV plant in Minnesota
[] – Enel Green Power Promotes Sustainability At Solar Power Plants In US

European Hydrogen Backbone

Hydrogen backbone 2040

11 European gas infrastructure companies have drafted a plan to construct a European Hydrogen Backbone, in line with the renewable energy transition efforts of the European Union. Most pipelines already exist, but need to be retrofitted for the conversion from natural gas towards hydrogen.

From the executive summary:

In the transition to a net zero-emission EU energy system, hydrogen and biomethane will play a major role in a smart combination with renewable electricity, using Europe’s well-developed existing energy infrastructure. For hydrogen to develop to its full potential, there must be a tangible perspective towards developing a wellconnected European hydrogen market over time.

A rapid scale up of renewable power for direct electricity demand will also provide a basis for renewable green hydrogen supply, especially from the late 2020s onwards. In the medium to long term, most hydrogen will be renewable hydrogen. Yet before cheap renewable electricity has scaled up sufficiently, low carbon blue hydrogen will be useful to accelerate decarbonisation from the mid-2020s onwards. This low carbon hydrogen will partly be based on applying CCS to existing grey hydrogen production at industrial clusters.

Large-scale hydrogen consumption will require a well-developed hydrogen transport infrastructure. This paper presents the European Hydrogen Backbone (“the EHB”): a vision for a truly European undertaking, connecting hydrogen supply and demand from north to south and west to east. Analysing this for ten European countries (Germany, France, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Sweden and Switzerland), we see a network gradually emerging from the mid-2020s onwards. This leads to an initial 6,800 km pipeline network by 2030, connecting hydrogen valleys. The planning for this first phase should start in the early 2020s. In a second and third phase, the infrastructure further expands by 2035 and stretches into all directions by 2040 with a length almost 23,000 km. Likely additional routes through countries not (yet) covered by the EHB initiative are included as dotted lines in the 2040 map. Further network development is expected up to 2050. Ultimately, two parallel gas transport networks will emerge: a dedicated hydrogen and a dedicated (bio)methane network. The hydrogen backbone as presented in this paper will transport hydrogen produced from (offshore) wind and solar-PV within Europe and also allows for hydrogen imports from outside Europe.

European gas infrastructure consists of pipelines with different sizes, from 20 inch in diameter to 48 inch and above. The hydrogen backbone, mainly based on converted existing pipelines, will reflect this diversity. Converted 36- and 48-inch pipelines, commonly in use for long-distance transport of gas within the EU, can transport around 7 resp. 13 GW of hydrogen per pipeline (at lower heating value¹) across Europe, which provides an indication of the vast potential of the gas infrastructure to take up its role in the future zero-emission EU energy system. And this is not even the highest capacity technically possible; from our analyses, we have concluded that it is more attractive to operate hydrogen pipelines at less than their maximum capacity, leading to substantial savings on investment in compressors and on the cost of operating them, including their energy consumption.

Such a dedicated European Hydrogen Backbone (2040 layout) requires an estimated total investment of €27-64 billion based on using 75% of converted natural gas pipelines connected by 25% new pipeline stretches. These costs are relatively limited in the overall context of the European energy transition and substantially lower than earlier rough estimations. The relatively wide range in the estimate is mainly due to uncertainties in (location dependent) compressor costs.

The operational cost is lower than expected as well; the amount of electricity required is around 2% of the energy content of the hydrogen transported, taken over a transport distance of 1,000 km. So, while the European Hydrogen Backbone provides competition and security of supply, costs for transport of hydrogen account for only a small part of total hydrogen costs for end users. The levelised cost is estimated to be between €0.09-0.17 per kg of hydrogen per 1000 km², allowing hydrogen to be transported cost-effectively over long distances across Europe.

This paper concludes that the cost of such a European Hydrogen Backbone can be very modest compared to the foreseen size of the hydrogen markets. That is why we now propose to launch it as a ‘first mover’, facilitating developments on the supply and demand side. European gas infrastructure companies are ready to lead and to invest in hydrogen transport to facilitate a scaling up of hydrogen, thereby being part of the solution to create a climate neutral European energy system and a European market for hydrogen. The backbone should allow for access by all interested market parties under equal terms and conditions.

Enabling the creation of a European Hydrogen Backbone has multiple implications for policy making. In its recent Hydrogen Strategy, the European Commission has already announced that it aims to ensure the full integration of hydrogen infrastructure in the infrastructure planning, including through the revision of the Trans-European Networks for Energy and the work on the Ten-Year Network Development Plans (TYNDPs). Policy making on sustainable finance, and the review of the gas legislation for competitive decarbonised gas markets will also need to play their role in enabling the long-term investments in this key European infrastructure.

This European Hydrogen Backbone is an open initiative. We invite other gas infrastructure companies from across Europe and from adjacent geographies and our associations GIE and ENTSOG to join in the thinking, to further developing the plan and expanding it into a truly pan-European undertaking. We are also looking forward to discussing our initiative with stakeholders including policy makers and with initiatives on the supply and demand side, including Hydrogen Europe’s 2 * 40 GW electrolyser plan.

As European gas infrastructure companies, we fully support the European Green Deal and we are willing to play our part in facilitating the scale up of renewable and low carbon gas. We see the European Hydrogen Backbone as a critical piece of the puzzle.

Hydrogen backbone 2030. The Netherlands and its North Sea offshore wind potential will play an initializing role in kicking off the hydrogen era in Europe.

[] – European Hydrogen Backbone, original report (10 MB, pdf)
[] – European Hydrogen Backbone plan
[] – Gas infrastructure comp. present a European Hydrogen Backbone plan
[] – Clean hydrogen needs its own infrastructure

Thin Film Solar Efficiency Record of 25%

Thin film solar efficiency is catching up with traditional pv-solar. The coordinating University of Leuven in Belgium and partners within their PERCISTAND consortium have achieved an energy efficiency of 25 percent with a thin-film solar cell. Even higher efficiencies are in the cards, the aim is 30% in three years.

Estimations suggest that increased efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) appliances above the Shockley-Queisser single-junction limit is related to the creation of tandem devices. The EU-funded PERCISTAND project will focus on the development of innovative materials and processes for perovskite on chalcogenide tandem appliances. The project will focus on four-terminal tandem solar cell and module prototype testing on glass substrates. The goal is to obtain efficiency, stability and large-scale manufacturability for thin film PV that will be competitive with existing commercial PV technologies. The results of the project will support the EU in regaining predominance in thin film PV research and production.

[] – Breakthrough: thin-film solar cells generate as much energy as traditional solar cells for the first time
[] – Percistand consortium
[] – Horizon Europe
[] – Development of all thin-film PERovskite on CIS TANDem photovoltaics

Dutch Solar Sector

[] – Dutch technology for the solar energy revolution

Liquid Air Batteries

Organic Redox Flow Batteries

China Plans 800 MWh Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery

[] – World’s largest battery: 200MW/800MWh vanadium flow battery
[] – world’s largest energy storage battery in China
[Google Maps] – Rongke Power, Dalian, China

Lazard – Renewable Energy Cheapest by Far

Click to enlarge

This does NOT include renewable electricity storage cost.

[] – Levelized Cost of Energy and Levelized Cost of Storage – 2020
[] – Wind & Solar Are Cheaper Than Everything, Lazard Reports

Biomass Pyrolysis

Biomass pyrolysis is defined as a thermochemical process that undergoes either in complete absence of oxygen or in limited supply that gasification does not occur to an appreciable extent.

Biomass has a high carbon content, that can be burned with good conscience, as the biomass is formed from removing CO2 from the atmosphere first. Burning biomass is carbon neutral. On top of that it can be used for seasonal storage of energy, something solar and wind can’t deliver.

[] – Pyrolysis
[] – Biomass Pyrolysis
[] – Biomass
[] – Energy crop
[] – Miscanthus giganteus (70 MWh/ha annually)

Smil estimates that the average area-specific power densities for modern biofuels, wind, hydro and solar power production are 0.30 W/m2, 1 W/m2, 3 W/m2 and 5 W/m2, respectively (power in the form of heat for biofuels, and electricity for wind, hydro and solar)

So biofuels are energetically much less efficient than pv solar per m2, except of course, biofuels can be stored, a distinct advantage over wind and solar.

Read more…

Direct Borohydride Fuel Cells

Borohydride apparently can be used in a fuel cell directly, skipping the hydrolysis stage.

Fuel cells using borohydride as the fuel will be reviewed in this chapter. A direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) is a device that converts chemical energy stored in borohydride ion ( BH−4 ) and an oxidant directly into electricity by redox processes. DBFC has some attractive features such as high open circuit potential, low operational temperature, and high power density. Both electro-oxidation of BH−4 and electro-reduction of oxidant take place on a large variety of precious and non-precious materials. DBFCs share similarities in terms of electrode preparation methods, fuel cell system design, etc. with PEFCs, which have been developed more extensively. Therefore, in this chapter, fuel cell technology, particularly PEFC, will be first reviewed to better understand materials and components of DBFC. Then the chapter continues to discuss prominent features of DBFC, and finally points out potential future direction of DBFC research.

[] – Direct Borohydride Fuel Cells—Current Status, Issues, and Future Directions
[] – Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (2018)
[] – Direct Borohydride Fuel Cells (DBFC) Technology (2011)

Sodium Borohydride as a Fuel for the Future

Recent overview article about NaBH4 as a hydrogen-source.

In a time of unprecedented change in environmental, geopolitical and socio-economic world affairs, the search for new energy materials has become a topic of great relevance. Sodium borohydride, NaBH4, seems to be a promising fuel in the context of the future hydrogen economy. NaBH4 belongs to a class of materials with the highest gravimetric hydrogen densities, which has been discovered in the 1940s by Schlesinger and Brown. In the present paper, the most relevant issues concerning the use of NaBH4 are examined. Its basic properties are summarised and its synthesis methods are described. The general processes of NaBH4 oxidation, hydrolysis, and monitoring are reviewed. A comprehensive bibliometric analysis of the NaBH4 publications in the energy field opens the discussion for current perspectives and future outlook of NaBH4 as an efficient energy/hydrogen carrier. Despite the observed exponential increase in the research on NaBH4 it is clear that further efforts are still necessary for achieving significant overchanges.

[] – Sodium borohydride as a fuel for the future

The Hydrolysis of NaBH4 with a Cobalt Catalyst


• The tablets based on NaBH4 have been employed as hydrogen generation materials.
• The kinetics of NaBH4 hydrolysis over different Co compounds has been studied.
• According to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism the kinetic data were analyzed.
• The observed reaction and adsorption constants for catalysts have been determined.
• The BH4‾ anion adsorption on catalyst is a key factor in NaBH4 hydrolysis.


Tablets on the basis of sodium borohydride and cobalt compounds (CoCl2·6H2O, Co(CH3COO)2·4H2O, Co3O4 and anhydrous CoSO4) have been studied as hydrogen generation materials. The kinetics of sodium borohydride hydrolysis upon contact of the tablets with water has been investigated. Adsorption and reaction constants have been determined for each of the catalysts using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model which allowed us to estimate the contribution of BH4‾ adsorption to the overall rate of hydrogen generation. It was noted that the nature of the catalyst precursor has an influence not only on the specific surface area of the in situ forming catalytically active phase, the particle size of the catalyst, the degree of reduction of cobalt compounds by sodium borohydride but also on the adsorption of BH4‾ anions from the reaction medium on the catalyst surface.

[] – Hydrogen storage systems based on solid-state NaBH4/Co composite: Effect of catalyst precursor on hydrogen generation rate

Efficient Synthesis of Sodium Borohydride

Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) has been identified as one of the most promising hydrogen storage materials; however, it is still challenging to produce NaBH4 with low cost and high efficiency, which are largely determined by the sources of boron and hydrogen and reducing agents used. Herein, we report an economical method to produce NaBH4 by ball milling hydrated borax (Na2B4O7·10H2O and/or Na2B4O7·5H2O) with different reducing agents such as MgH2, Mg, and NaH under ambient conditions. The direct use of natural hydrated borax avoids the dehydration process (at 600 °C) and consequently reduces cost and improves overall energy efficiency. A high yield of 93.1% can be achieved for a short ball mill duration (3.5 h) for Na2B4O7·5H2O-NaH-MgH2 system. In this system, H2 is generated in situ which subsequently reacts with Mg forming MgH2. Low cost Mg is therefore employed to replace the majority of MgH2, leading to an attractive yield of 78.6%. To further reduce the cost of raw materials and improve the utilization of hydrogen source in the hydrated borax, Na2B4O7·10H2O is used to partially substitute for Na2B4O7·5H2O, leading to a complete replacement of MgH2. Compared with literature results, the optimized recipe features low cost and high efficiency since it utilizes hydrogen from the hydrated water in natural borax and avoids high temperatures. Our finding is expected to facilitate applications of NaBH4 for hydrogen storage.

[] – Efficient Synthesis of Sodium Borohydride: Balancing Reducing Agents with Intrinsic Hydrogen Source in Hydrated Borax (Aug 2020)

Facile Regeneration of NaBH4 from its Hydrolytic Product

Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is among the most studied hydrogen storage materials because it is able to deliver high‐purity H2 at room temperature with controllable kinetics via hydrolysis; however, its regeneration from the hydrolytic product has been challenging. Now, a facile method is reported to regenerate NaBH4 with high yield and low costs. The hydrolytic product NaBO2 in aqueous solution reacts with CO2, forming Na2B4O7⋅10 H2O and Na2CO3, both of which are ball‐milled with Mg under ambient conditions to form NaBH4 in high yield (close to 80 %). Compared with previous studies, this approach avoids expensive reducing agents such as MgH2, bypasses the energy‐intensive dehydration procedure to remove water from Na2B4O7⋅10 H2O, and does not require high‐pressure H2 gas, therefore leading to much reduced costs. This method is expected to effectively close the loop of NaBH4 regeneration and hydrolysis, enabling a wide deployment of NaBH4 for hydrogen storage.

[] – Closing the Loop for Hydrogen Storage: Facile Regeneration of NaBH4 from its Hydrolytic Product (Feb 2020)

One-Step Regeneration of NaBH4

The hydrolysis of NaBH4 offers significant advantages for hydrogen storage in fuel cells, whereby suffers from the irreversibility. Thus, a simple and low cost method for NaBH4 regeneration from its hydrolysis byproduct is crucial. Herein, we describe a single step method for NaBH4 regeneration, which combines both hydrogen production and storage in the one step. In the process, a mixture of magnesium silicide and dihydrate sodium metaborate is reacted via ball milling under ambient conditions without the requirements of additional hydrogen sources. The hydrogen only comes from the splitting of H2O in the NaBO2·2H2O that is a direct byproduct of NaBH4 hydrolysis. The purified product demonstrates the same physicochemical properties as commercial NaBH4. Yields for NaBH4 regeneration approaching 80% are achieved using this method. Mechanism study indicates that the high yield is likely to be beneficial from the formation of the Mg-O-Si-H conjugated structure. NaBH4 regeneration using this process demonstrates a 30-fold reduction in cost over a previous study that used MgH2 as the reduction agent.

[] – An one-step approach towards hydrogen production and storage through regeneration of NaBH4 (March 2017)

Hydrolysis and Ball Mill Regeneration of NaBH4

Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) hydrolysis is a promising approach for hydrogen generation, but it is limited by high costs, low efficiency of recycling the by-product, and a lack of effective gravimetric storage methods. Here we demonstrate the regeneration of NaBH4 by ball milling the by-product, NaBO2·2H2O or NaBO2·4H2O, with MgH2 at room temperature and atmospheric pressure without any further post-treatment. Record yields of NaBH4 at 90.0% for NaBO2·2H2O and 88.3% for NaBO2·4H2O are achieved. This process also produces hydrogen from the splitting of coordinate water in hydrated sodium metaborate. This compensates the need for extra hydrogen for generating MgH2. Accordingly, we conclude that our unique approach realizes an efficient and cost-effective closed loop system for hydrogen production and storage.

[] – Hydrolysis and regeneration of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) – A combination of hydrogen production and storage (Aug 2017)

[] – Ball mill

[] – The Processing of NaBH4 from Na2B4O7 by Mechano-chemical Synthesis and Its Catalytic Dehydrogenation (2012)

Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is a specialty reducing agent used in fuel cell systems. Feasible NaBH4 production techniques are required to reduce the costs of NaBH4, making its usage attractive. At present, anhydrous borax (Na2B4O7) is a promising reactant in NaBH4 synthesis. However, further improvements to optimize the yield of the NaBH4 production process operating with MgH2 and Na2B4O7 in ball milling are necessary. In order to obtain optimum reaction conditions, experiments were performed under inert atmosphere. First, we attempted to compensate Na insufficiency with the addition of Na, NaH, and Na2CO3. Next, the reaction period and stoichiometric ratio of our experiments were studied with Na2B4O7 and MgH2. Reaction times were varied from 200 to 600 min, and regulated the excess MgH2 addition at 0, 10, 30, 50, and 70%. The synthesized products were characterized by FT-IR and XRD analysis and checked our results using iodimetry and dehydrogenation tests. We were able to achieve yield levels of approximately 84% of NaBH4 in certain purification processes with ethylene diamin after 400 min of reaction time and at excess MgH2 levels of 10% or more.

US government approach (2003):

[] – Process for Regeneration of Sodium Borate to Sodium Borohydride for Use as a Hydrogen Storage Source

  • Current efforts have led to a cost reduction pathway for NaBH4 leading to its use as a hydrogen carrier for use as a transportation fuel. As more information is obtained on each of the processes to generate either sodium metal or borohydride directly the economic models will be refined to reflect the improved knowledge.
  • NaBO2 has been recycled into Na and acidified borate solutions, completing a closed mass balance recycle of products into borohydride. Future work will endeavor to show complete conversion of borate to boric acid, and experimentation on direct synthesis of trimethyl borate in the electrolysis cell.
  • Current density of 100 mA/cm2 through the ion selective membrane is adequate for scaled-up sodium synthesis from NaOH. Future work will be to duplicate this feat from NaBO2, and to improve the membrane lifetime, particularly in NaOH (aq.) electrochemical systems.
  • Pending the go/no-go decision, a task is planned to build the 1 kg of Na/day electrochemical reactor. The knowledge gained from this work will be fed back into the economic model, and used to model the scale-up of the reaction.
  • Two of three cathode compartment reactions have been demonstrated for one-pot borohydride ion synthesis. Future work will be to prove the third reaction and complete synthesis of the BH4 – species.
  • Efficient Regeneration of NaHB4 With an Mg-Al alloy

    Highlights study

    • A low-cost method for NaBH4 regeneration was developed by Mg-Al alloy.
    • Using the hydrolysis by-products (NaBO2·2H2O) as raw material to regenerate NaBH4.
    • A small amount of NaH can significantly improve the yield of NaBH4.
    • The mechanism of NaBH4 regeneration is revealed, not only Mg can participate in the reaction, but also Al.


    Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is considered to be an excellent hydrogen-generation material via hydrolysis. However, it remains challenge to regenerate it after hydrolysis in practical applications. Therefore, a low-cost regeneration method from hydrolysis by-products for recycling is the key issue. In this study, NaBH4 was successfully regenerated by direct high-energy ball milling of magnesium alloy (Mg17Al12) and hydrolysis by-product NaBO2·2H2O with addition of a small amount of NaH. Notably, unlike traditional method, here there is no need of adding extra hydrogen and the H− in the regenerated NaBH4 is mainly from the H+ in the coordinated water. It was found that through adding a small amount of NaH, the highest yield may reach 57% after optimizing the regeneration process. In addition, it is the first time we found that not only Mg can participate in the reaction, but also Al; and the addition of NaH can promote the reaction. Furthermore, the regeneration mechanism of NaBH4 was analyzed and the transition pattern [B(OH)4]−/[BH3(OH)]−/[BH4]− was successfully observed during the regeneration process. It is worth emphasizing that NaBH4 can be regenerated through ball milling method, which is energy-saving and suitable for up-scaling in the future.

    [] – Regulation of high-efficient regeneration of sodium borohydride by magnesium-aluminum alloy (May 2019)
    [deepresource] – Regeneration of Spent NaBH4 From Renewable Electricity

    Vision AVTR – The Car to End All Cars

    The car has no steering wheel, since it is autonomous, it has spherical wheels, enabling driving side wards. Next year the first level 4 autonomous driving cars will be allowed on German roads. The implications are breath-taking. The AVTR is a luxury car, unattainable for the masses. However, more down-to-earth vans will provide the opportunity for most people to abandon the privately-owned car altogether and order a driverless car from the cloud, on the moment it is needed. Expect cities to be quiet and largely car-free by 2030. Good news for the environment and escaping the consequences of conventional peak oil.

    [] – Mercedes-Benz Vision AVTR
    [deepresource] – “By 2030 You Won’t Own a Car”

    Concrete Borohydride Projects Underway

    As part of the EU Project H2SHIPS, the Port of Amsterdam is involved in two pilot projects that intend to have ships run on hydrogen, as stored in borohydride. One of them will be the construction of a small vessel named “De Havenbeheer”, fuelled by hydrogen as released from borohydride (NaBH4), during the voyage. The technical details are described in the graduation thesis by D. Lensing, see top link below. The vessel will be completed before July 2022 and will serve as a demonstration model for visitors and potential customers for the storage technology.

    [] – D. Lensing, A study on the integration of a novel NaBH4
    fuelled hybrid system for a small inland vessel (145p pdf download)

    [] – H2SHIPS: schepen varen op groene waterstof
    [] – Port of Amsterdam partij in twee pilots: schoner en emissieloos varen
    [] – EU Project H2SHIPS – System-Based Solutions for H2-Fuelled Water Transport in North-West Europe
    [] – H2SHIPS
    [deepresource] – Clipper Stad Amsterdam & Hydrogen Powertrain

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