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Archive for the category “hydrogen”

Photocatalytic Water Splitting

New TiO2 photocatalyst for water splitting. H2 bubbles are generated from the catalyst surface only by sunlight irradiation. Chemistry department of NUS.

[wikipedia.org] – Photocatalytic water splitting

Solar driven water splitting for large-scale hydrogen fuel production from semiconductor photo-electrodes has the potential to provide energy on large scale from renewable, sustainable sources. Our research focuses on the kinetically more demanding oxygen-evolution reaction, and we prepare thin film metal oxide photoanodes by low-temperature, solution-based processes. One promising light absorber is TiO2:(Nb,N) where Nb and N substitute for Ti and O on their respective lattice sites in anatase. These materials are prepared by sol-gel processing followed by annealing in flowing ammonia. We observe a band-gap energy as low as 2.0 eV at 25% Nb and 2% N. In conjunction with a RuO2 catalyst, powdered TiO2:(Nb,N) evolves O2. A second class of materials we study is the transition-metal tungstates, and we have prepared our most promising candidate, CuWO4, by several routes: electrochemical deposition, sol-gel processing, and spray pyrolysis. These methods afford highly reproducible and robust CuWO4 thin-film electrodes on transparent conducting substrates. CuWO4 is an n–type semiconductor with a band-gap energy of ~2.4 eV. CuWO4 thin films photooxidize water with simulated solar radiation with a nearly quantitative Faradaic efficiency for O2 evolution at no applied bias in the presence of the sacrificial electron acceptor, [Fe(CN)6]3–. Most important, these thin-film electrodes are stable against photocorrosion when illuminated with visible light at neutral pH, a significant improvement to the more commonly studied photoanode, WO3. Current efforts are aimed at preparing complex tungstates that absorb lower energy light to improve the quantum yield. This talk was presented on May 14, 2013 as part of the IHS Markit Seminar Series.
Speaker:
Bart Bartlett, Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan

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The Hydrogen Electrolyser

700 MW Renewable Hydrogen Plant to be Built in France

[source] Origin Norsk Hydro 1927.

Nel Hydrogen from Norway, with more than 80 years of experience in producing hydrogen, will build an initial 100 MW power-to-gas plant in Normandy, France between 2018-2020. Investment volume: 45 million euro. The intention is to expand to 700 MW by 2025. The resulting hydrogen will be mixed with natural gas in order to make the fuel “greener” by significantly reducing CO2 emissions.

[news.cision.com] – Nel ASA: Enters into exclusive NOK 450 million industrial-scale power-to-gas framework agreement with H2V PRODUCT
[nelhydrogen.com] – Company site
[wallstreet-online.de] – Nel ASA erhält Auftrag für weltweit größte Wasserstoff-Elektrolyseur-Tankstation

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Building a Hydrogen Refueling Station in 48 Hours (Time-lapse)

Fill the tank of your fuel cell powered car within 3 minutes with hydrogen and drive another 500 km.

The West is betting on batteries.
The Japanese are betting on fuel cells and hydrogen.

We bet on the Japanese and the hydrogen solution as displayed in the video.

Groene Waterstofeconomie in Noord-Nederland

The northern provinces of the Netherlands are actively promoting the hydrogen economy, where cheap offshore electricity will be used for the production of hydrogen.

[profadvanwijk.com] – The Green Hydrogen Economy in the Northern Netherlands
[profadvanwijk.com] – The Green Hydrogen Economy in the Northern Netherlands
(31p pdf about how to set up a hydrogen economy)

High Temperature Electrolysis


Sunfire’s field of operation

Dr. Oliver Born: this presentation is mainly about using waste heat steam for hydrogen production. With steam you can typically achieve 20% higher efficiency with steam than with low temperature water.

[wikipedia.org] – High-temperature electrolysis

During electrolysis, the amount of electrical energy that must be added equals the change in Gibbs free energy of the reaction plus the losses in the system. The losses can (theoretically) be arbitrarily close to zero, so the maximum thermodynamic efficiency of any electrochemical process equals 100%. In practice, the efficiency is given by electrical work achieved divided by the Gibbs free energy change of the reaction.

In most cases, such as room temperature water electrolysis, the electric input is larger than the enthalpy change of the reaction, so some energy is released as waste heat. In the case of electrolysis of steam into hydrogen and oxygen at high temperature, the opposite is true. Heat is absorbed from the surroundings, and the heating value of the produced hydrogen is higher than the electric input. In this case the efficiency relative to electric energy input can be said to be greater than 100%.

[sunfire.de] – Sunfire company site

[sunfire.de] – Low cost hydrogen production
Sunfire achieves 82% electrolysis efficiency in their hydrogen generator modules.
Input: saturated steam 40 kg/h @ 150°C and pressure: 3 bar(g)

British contribution: scaling up electrolysis to 100 MW

Power to Gas: That’s how Wind Power is Stored

Technology has matured enough to produce effective wind turbines. The next technological challenge is how to store intermittent electricity generated by these wind turbines. The most promising technology is power-to-gas: use electricity from wind to split water in H2 and O2 molecules and burn (reunited) them at a later point in time.

This project produces 163 bar hydrogen, without the need of an external compressor. The resulting hydrogen can be directly fed into the existing natural gas network.

[omv.com] – Hydrogen technology
[omv.com] – Renewable energy? Let’s store it!

Water Splitting Catalyst Breakthrough?

Molecular models representing a 2D heterostructure made of graphene (gray background hexagonal lattice), and islands on top of hexagonal WS2 and MoS, as well as an alloy of the two. Water (H2O) molecules in red (oxygen) and gray (hydrogen) come from the bottom left hand side and get transformed catalytically after interacting with the heterostructures into H2 bubbles (top right hand side). Credit: Penn State Materials Research Institute.

Platinum is a near perfect catalyst for splitting water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. The only drawback is that it is very expensive. Researchers from Houston, Penn State and Florida State University claim to have found a cheaper replacement: Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). A Swiss team already proposed this solution in 2011.

No efficiency numbers are given.

The Wiley link from 2016 mentions 12.4%

[phys.org] – Low cost, scalable water splitting fuels the future hydrogen economy
[phys.org] – Researchers report new, more efficient catalyst for water splitting
[pubs.rsc.org] – Amorphous MoS2 films as catalysts for electrochem. H2 prod. in H2O
[pubs.acs.org] – Amorphous Molybdenum Sulfides as Hydrogen Evolution Catalysts
[onlinelibrary.wiley.com] – MoS2 as a co-catalyst for photocatalytic hydrogen production from water
[wikipedia.org] – Molybdenum disulfide
[wikipedia.org] – Gibbs free energy

Water Electrolysis in Mainz

The German city of Mainz is situated in the Bundesland (province) Rhineland-Palatinate, which has the ambition of eliminating fossil fuel from electricity production completely by 2030. For that purpose a storage solution for regenerative energy needs to be found. Mainz has built a facility based on electrolysis of water, producing hydrogen and oxygen. Their Siemens Silyzer 200 PEM electrolysis system operates with a conversion efficiency of 65-70%.


Siemens Silyzer 200 PEM electrolysis system

[energiepark-mainz.de] – Energiepark Mainz, official site
[fch.europa.eu] – Energy Park Mainz A Project for the Industry
[electricvehiclesresearch.com] – Mainz claim to have the world’s largest green hydrogen plant
[industry.siemens.com] – SILYZER 200 (PEM electrolysis system)
[h2-international.com] – Electrolyzer Manufacturers Stake Their Claims

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Future of E-Vehicles: Battery or Fuel Cell?

The world’s elites seem to agree that e-vehicles are the future. The remaining question is: what will power them? Batteries or fuel cells. Or put differently: will hydrogen be included in the energy conversion scheme? Trillions of euros/dollars are at stake here.

The video claims that batteries have won. It is however possible to find support for either point of view, see links below.

Comment: our tentative conclusion would be that fuel cells will win because of the storage aspect of hydrogen. After all, the renewable generated electricity will need to be stored somewhere anyway. Why not in hydrogen that can be directly used in cars?

[energy.gov] – Fuel Cell and Battery Electric Vehicles Compared
[spectrum.ieee.org] – Why the Automotive Future Will Be Dominated by Fuel Cells
[electrek.co] – Majority of automotive execs still believe battery-powered cars will fail and fuel cells are the future
[energypost.eu] – Why hydrogen fuel cell cars are not competitive — from a hydrogen fuel cell expert

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Fuel Cells in Shipping

German language video

Global shipping is a major polluter. Efforts are underway to eliminate the use of oil fuel. A replacement candidate is hydrogen-based fuel cells. Hydrogen produced with renewable electricity is converted into electricity, that drives and elektro-motor and propeller.

[e4ships.de] – e4ships – fuel cells in marine applications
[ideenwerkbw.de] – Brennstoffzelle und Schiffe: Sauber auf See

HY4 – World’s First Fuel Cell Hydrogen Plane

On September 29, 2016, the first plane with a fuel cell propulsion took off from Stuttgart airport in Germany.

Empty mass: 630 kg (battery 130 kg, fuel cell 100 kg)
Max. total weight: 1500 kg
Max. speed: 200 kmh
Cruise speed: 145 kmh
Range: 750-1500 km (depending on battery)
Capacity: 4 passengers

[wikipedia.org] – HY4
[hy4.org] – Official site
[golem.de] – Das Brennstoffzellenflugzeug wird viersitzig

[wikipedia.org] – Hydrogen-powered aircraft

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Hydrogen Europe

From the official site:

Hydrogen Europe (formerly known as NEW-IG) is the leading European industry association representing over 100 companies and national associations in the fuel cells and hydrogen sector.

Following the renewal of the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking under Horizon 2020 (budget 1.3 billion EUR), the association decided to step up its ambition in advocacy towards EU policy-makers beyond this partnership and thereby transform Hydrogen Europe into a full-fledged European industry body with full external reach.

In so achieving, Hydrogen Europe is building a second pillar within the association comprising European National and Regional fuel cell and hydrogen associations. The underlining objective is to bring together fuel cell and hydrogen industry and national/regional associations in order to streamline and enhance advocacy efforts and ultimately strengthen the European fuel cell and hydrogen sector as a whole.

[hydrogeneurope.eu] – Official site
[wikipedia.org] – Jorgo Chatzimarkakis

Interreg – North Sea Region – HyTrEc2

HyTrEc 2

The key aim of HyTrEc 2 is to create conditions so that a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles market can develop, and promote the NSR as a Centre for Excellence for fuel cells and range extenders. The project will reduce the cost of hydrogen vehicles and reduce CO2 emissions by:

  • Improving the operational efficiency of a wide range of vehicles such as vans, large trucks and refuse collection vehicles.
  • Improving the supply chain and training so that the NSR becomes a Centre of Excellence for hydrogen transport and a competitive environment is formed
  • Developing innovative methods for the production, storage and distribution of green hydrogen.
  • Ensuring that the NSR is the dominant region in the EU in terms of hydrogen transport. The project will complement national

Partners

  • European Institute for Innovation Technology e.V.
  • Aberdeen city council
  • Centre of Excellence for Low Carbon and Fuel Technologies
  • Hogskolen i Narvik
  • SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut
  • Provincie Drenthe
  • Gemeente Groningen
  • Aberdeenshire Council

[northsearegion.eu] – HyTrEc2, green transport and mobility
[eifi.info] – HYTREC 2

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Hyundai FE Fuel Cell Concept

Geneva car show presentation of the 2018 Hyundai fuel cell SUV. Range 800 km (500 km probably more realistic). Efficiency fourth generation fuel cell 60%, 9% better than the previous generation. Worldwide distribution as of 2018. 120 kW electromotor. Low temperature starting problems should have been solved.

[autobahn.eu] – Dit is Hyundai’s next-gen waterstof-SUV, met 800 km bereik

Van Hool Hydrogen Buses

[vanhool.be] – Hybrid fuel cell bus
[wikipedia.org] – Van Hool

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Solar-Hydrogen-Future Crash Course

Youtube text: Published July 14, 2014. This 22 minute video gives a detailed account for why—given the urgency of our times—Solar Hydrogen technology offers the most promising global energy strategy for the next 2 decades.

Electrolysis of Water

2 H2O(l) → 2 H2(g) + O2(g)

In the world of fossil fuel, the fuel is the storage medium. Coal, gas and oil can can be conveniently stored until they are needed. With solar and wind that option doesn’t exist. There can be a large mismatch between supply and demand that needs to be bridged. One of the storage options is hydrogen that can be won from electrolysis of water on the very moment that renewable electricity is produced.

The idea of using hydrogen as the central storage facility originates from 1970, when the term ‘hydrogen economy’ was minted. The advantages are clear: high energy density per unit of weight and clean burning with only water coming from the exhaust. The disadvantages are explosiveness and extremely low temperatures required to liquefy hydrogen in order to achieve high energy density per unit of volume as well. Hydrogen can be used to burn like gasoline and converted into mechanical energy or transformed chemically in a fuel cell to produce electricity. In both cases hydrogen is combined with oxygen to produce water.

As with any conversion technology, the aim is to minimize energy losses and achieve high efficiency. In this post you will find videos that highlight the electrolysis process.

[wikipedia.org] – Electrolysis of water
[wikipedia.org] – Fuel cell
[wikipedia.org] – Hydrogen economy
[amazon.com] – Jeremy Rifkind, The Hydrogen Economy
[theguardian.com] – What’s the ‘hydrogen economy’?
[siemens.com] – SILYZER 200 (PEM electrolysis system)
[profadvanwijk.com] – The Green Hydrogen Economy in the Northern Netherlands

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First Climate Neutral Power Station in The Netherlands

[source] Magnum power station, 8 billion euro, 1.3 GW, high efficiency (58%) natural gas power station that was built from 2009 in Eemshaven in the north of The Netherlands.

A memorandum of understanding has been signed between Statoil, Vattenfall and Gasunie last month. The intention is to convert one of the existing three units of the Magnum power plant in Eemshaven into a facility where hydrogen rather than natural gas will be burned as of 2023. Statoil will produce the hydrogen from natural gas, but will store the resulting CO2 byproduct under ground. This will result in the first climate neutral hydrogen power station in the world (440 MW). Currently Norway is busy constructing a so-called CO2-vault of its west coast and likes to see the Dutch power station in Eemshaven as one of its first customers.

The production of hydrogen from natural gas is merely a temporary solution and must be seen as a preparation for a later stage, when the hydrogen must come from the new offshore wind power stations in the neighboring North Sea, where electricity will be used in an electrolysis process to split water in hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen will be converted into ammonia for easier storage and eventually be burned at Magnum. Hence the description of the power station as an “ammonia battery“.

[statoil.com] – Evaluating conversion of natural gas to hydrogen
[nl.wikipedia.org] – Magnum (energiecentrale)
[volkskrant.nl] – Eerste klimaatneutrale energiecentrale ter wereld komt in Eemshaven
[bellona.org] – First ever climate neutral power plant
[snn.eu] – Aandacht in Den Haag voor noordelijke energie ambities

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Prof. Ad van Wijk

“There is no energy crisis” is the adage of prof van Wijk. Lecture Masdar Institute of Technology in Abu Dhabi.

The concept of the “hydrogen economy” is still very much alive in The Netherlands and one of its main proponents is prof. Ad van Wijk, sustainable energy entrepreneur and part-time Professor Future Energy Systems at the Delft University of Technology.

Van Wijk is currently pushing for the North of the Netherlands to embrace the hydrogen economy as a substitute for the outgoing natural gas age, to be fueled by rise of the North Sea as the coming energy power house of the Netherlands and the EU.

[profadvanwijk.com] – The Green Hydrogen Economy in the Northern Netherlands
[twitter.com] – Ad van Wijk twitter account

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