Observing the renewable energy transition from a European perspective

Blueprint 100% Renewable Energy Base for Germany

Hans-Martin Henning and Andreas Palzer of the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems in Germany have set up a computer model for a 100% renewable energy base for Germany and have used that model to find the most cost effective configuration. The result can be seen in the diagram.

The energy inputs are:

Source Power [GW] Annual energy [TWh]
Solar panels 252 246
Onshore wind 200 360
Thermal solar 182 148
Offshore wind 85 297
Hydro-power 5 21
Electricity import 0 0

Scale the numbers up and you have the solution for Europe, with significant changes in numbers for individual nations. The cost of this renewable energy system would not be higher than our current fossil fuel based energy system.


Gud – “Gas und Dampf” (gas and steam).
KWK – “Kraftwärmekopplung” (co-generation. “power-heat-coupling”)
Solarthermie – thermal solar (solar collectors)
BHKW – “Blockheizkraftwerke” (co-generation. “block heat and power generation”)
Gas-Wärmepumpen – Gas-heatpumps
Pumpspeicher – Pumped hydro
Wärmespeicher – heat storage (water medium)
Wärmelast – heat load
WP – “Wärmepump” (heat pump)

[] – 100 % Erneuerbare Energien fuer Strom und Waerme in Deutschland
[] – 27 slides talk Dr. Hans-Martin Henning
[] – 66 slides talk Dr. Hans-Martin Henning
[] – Deutsche Energiewende klappt nur mit intensiver Wärmedämmung
[] – Two Directors Take Over as Head of Fraunhofer ISE

[] – Sichere Stromversorgung mit 100 % Erneuerbaren Energien ist möglich

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